|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 137-140
Traditional phytotherapy for the treatment of hydrocele in Odisha, India
Botanical Survey of India, Central Botanical Laboratory, Howrah, West Bengal, India
|Date of Web Publication||4-Nov-2012|
Central Botanical Laboratory, Botanical Survey of India, P.O.-Botanical Garden, Howrah, West Bengal
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The present article deals with the unknown traditional uses of 15 plant species for the treatment of hydrocele, collected from 27 tribal groups ofthe Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Angul, and Balangir districts of Odisha. These ethnomedicinal uses were compared and cross-checked with the data mentioned in the well-known, standard, Indian ethnomedicinal as well as medicinal literatures and it was found that these medicinal uses of the referred plants had not been reported earlier.
Keywords: Angul, Balangir, hydrocele, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, Sundargarh
|How to cite this article:|
Singh H. Traditional phytotherapy for the treatment of hydrocele in Odisha, India. Ancient Sci Life 2012;31:137-40
| Introduction|| |
Odisha (erstwhile Orissa) is located on the eastern coast of India, between the 17°49΄ to 22°34′N Latitude and 81°29′to 87°29΄E longitude, and surrounded by Andhra Pradesh on the South-East, Chhattisgarh on the West, Jharkhand in the North, West Bengal in the North-East,and Bay of Bengal in the East. The total tribal population of the state is 8,145,081, which is 22.18% of the total population of the state.  There are 62 tribal groups concentrated in different remote, hilly, and forest areas of the state. Mostly,the places they inhabit are far away from the modern medical facilities and they use many locally available plant species for the treatment of various diseases, disorders, and ailments. During the ethnobotanical survey of Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Angul, and Balangir districts of Odisha, it has been found that different parts of 15 plants (out of 374 ethnomedicinal plants) are being used in different waysto treat hydrocele, locally known as 'Eksira' in the area. Generally, a hydrocele is a pathological accumulation of serum fluid around the testicle in the scrotum, causing swelling in the scrotum. During normal development, the testicles descend down a tube from the abdomen into the scrotum. Hydroceleoccurs when this tube fails to close and the fluid drains from the abdomen through the open tube into the scrotum. Hydroceles are common in newborn infants and normally resolve without treatment by the age of one year. In adult men, it may also be caused by inflammation or injury of the testicle or epididymis, or by fluid or blood blockage within the spermatic cord. A hydrocele usually occurs on one side, but can also affect both sides. It is normally painless and harmless, but may cause discomfort because of its abnormal size. Treatment is usually recommended, if the hydrocele persists for longer than 18 months in case of infants and if it causes discomfort or embarrassment in adolescents and adults. A hydrocele can be treated by draining the fluid with a needle (aspiration) or by a minor surgical procedure, in the modern medical system. However, tribal people mostly collect the available plants from their surrounding forest areas and prepare a paste of the plants. This they apply on the affected portion externally or give hot fomentation for the treatment of hydrocele. Sometimes the extract or decoction of the plant is also given orally for a complete cure of the disorder.
A survey of literature reveals that a good number of ethnobotanical contributions have been made during the last few decades from Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Angul, and Balangir districts by AminuddinandGirach (1996), Bal (1942), Behera (2003, 2006), Behera et al. (2008a, 2008b), Brahmam and Saxena (1990), Girach et al. (1998), Jain (1971), Kumar et al. (2006), Misra (2004), Misra and Das (2003), Mohapatraand Sahoo (2008), Mudgal and Pal (1980), Mukherjee and Namhata (1990), Pandeyand Rout (2001, 2006), Pandey et al. (2002), Rout (2005, 2007), Rout and Pandey (2007a, 2007b), Sarkar et al. (1999), Satapathy and Panda (1992), Satapathy and Brahmam (1996), Saxena and Brahmam (1989), Saxena et al. (1988), Singh et al. (2010a, 2010b, 2010c), Tripathi and Behera (2008), and Yoganarsimhan and Dutta (1972), ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, but a publication especially on hydrocele is not available.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Field tours have been undertaken in 165 remote tribal villages and forest areas of Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Angul, and Balangir districts, among 27 tribal groups and other rural people, and 374 plant species have been collected for the treatment of different diseases, disorders, and ailments. Of these, 15 plant species are being used for the treatment of hydrocele in these areas.
Old and experienced men, women, and medicine men - 'Vaidya' , 'Kaviraj'- were interviewed for first-hand information on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants and repeated and cross queries were also asked,to confirm and verify the information. These plant specimens were identified with the help of keys and botanical descriptions, described in regional floras like, Haines (1961), Mooney (1941, 1950), and SaxenaandBrahmam (1994- 1996). ,,, The latest botanical nomenclature was checked with the world renowned and widely accepted website http://www.theplantlist.org (The Plant List, 2010 ).  After matching with the authentic specimens housed in Central National Herbarium (CAL), these voucher specimens were deposited in the Ethnobotanical Herbarium of the Central Botanical Laboratory (CBL), Howrah. Furthermore, these ethnomedicinal uses were compared and cross-checked with well-known standard Indian ethnomedicinal  and medicinal literatures, , and it was found that these medicinal uses of the referred plants were not reported earlier.
These plant species are enumerated in alphabetical order, with their family in parenthesis, followed by the local name(s), locality(ies), voucher number(s), mode of preparation, and method of ethnomedicinal uses, in detail.
• Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. (Amaranthaceae)
L.N.: Lupungada, Chawaldawa, Chawaldhuwagachh, Chaldoa
Loc.: Sundivilla 11829, Badampahar, Karatbasa 19701
Uses: Root bark is taken orally along with a local alcoholic drink (Daru) daily, for two weeks, forthe treatment of hydrocele.
• Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Araceae)
L.N.: Oal, Suran, Godugaadi, Ulo, Brahmani-jhantiya, Baghri
Loc.: Ramatirtha 11716, Gurguria, Badampahar, Stationsai 11859
Uses: Fresh corms are pasted with the root of Grewia hirsuta (Kukurbijda). The prepared paste is applied externally on the testicles at night forthe treatment of hydrocele (Eksira).
• Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (Asclepiadaceae)
L.N.: Arakh, Sweto-arkho, Araka, Atang, Arak-gachh
Loc.: Khajurdihi, Lodan, Lodapani, Gopupali 12320
Uses: Leaf coated with oil, slightly warmed, and kept over the affected part, for the treatment of hydrocele.
• Cheilocostusspeciosus (J.Kφnig) C. Specht Syn. Costusspeciosus (Koenig ex Retz.) Sm. (Costaceae)
L.N.: Urupkutu, Keo, Gaigendaida, Kewu, Kou, Koukouka, Keu konda
Loc.:Purunakote 34112, KenduMundia, Tokoba 34193 Jamardih, Pallahara 30481
Uses: Rhizomes are dried, powdered, and given with honey (1:2 ratio) for two weeks, for the treatment of hydrocele (Eksira).
• Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Hypoxidaceae)
Loc: Kirbhanji Jungle, KenduBahali Jungle 30135
Uses: Rhizomes are taken orally with milk for seven days,forthe treatment of hydrocele. The powder of dried rhizome are mixed with linseed oil (Rashi-tel) and also applied simultaneously on the hydrocele.
• Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees (Poaceae)
L.N.: Bans, Baunsa
Loc.: Beldihi 11846
Uses: Roots are pounded and soaked in coconut oil for three days. The prepared lotion is applied externally on one-sided hydroceles (Eksira) of children, until they arecured.
• Gloriosa superba L. (Colchicaceae)
L.N.: BandriyaPhool, Nahnugudia, Islagudia, Orgabaha, Kalihari, Agnishika, Jhagdayee, Lohlangudiya, Endkera -gachho, Lahlangia, Lagulagudia, Nauriya, Andkira, Korali-konda
Loc.: Ramatirtha, Gurguria 11722, Jamda, BaliaPatha, Manchabanda 19655
Uses: The tubers are boiled with mustard oil for two hours and after cooling the prepared lotion is applied externally on the hydrocele for two to three days.
• Grewia hirsutaVahl (Tiliaceae)
L.N. Duralabha, Dulabha, Kukur-Bijda, Sunaro-garh, Sundarigarh, Kukuranda
Loc.: Manchabanda 19651, Ramatirtha, Gurguria 11715
Uses: Roots are ground with corm of Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius (Oal) and made into a paste. The paste is applied on the testicles at night for the treatment of hydrocele (Eksira).
• Mimosa himalayana Gamble (Mimosaceae)
L.N.:Kundrujanum, Kirkichikanta, Kirkinchi
Loc.: Rangmattia 11835, Hathikote 19724
Uses: Roots are collected, washed, made into a paste, and applied two to three times externally on the testicles for the treatment of one-sided hydrocele (Eksira).
• Paspalum scrobiculatum L. (Poaceae)
Loc.: Pallahara 30499
Uses: Whole plant (Panchang) is powdered and given (2 mg) orally, daily,forthe treatment of hydrocele.
• Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae)
Loc.: Nizgarh, Pallahara 30524
Uses: The paste of the fresh fruits is applied externally once only on the testicles forthe treatment of hydrocele.
• Plumbago indica L. Syn. P. rosea L. (Plumbaginaceae)
L.N.: Nalchittaparo, Raktachittaparo, Chiraita, Lorjonka
Loc.: Manchabanda 19658, Jamdiha 19705
Uses: The roots are made into a paste and wrapped in a leaf of Shorearobusta and warmed slightly. Thisis used for hot fomentations of the hydrocele (Eksira).
• Schrebera swietenioides Roxb. (Oleaceae)
Loc.: Ramatirtha, Gurguria 11786
Uses: The leaves are made into a paste and applied locally on the testis before going to sleep in the night, for the treatment of hydrocele (Eksira).
• Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae)
L.N.: Imlio, Tentuli, Tetudi, Imli, Tetel, Jojo
Loc.: Sipi 11869
Uses: The leaves are ground with the fruit pulp ofCaesalpiniabonduc (Gill Phal) and cow urine, and warmed slightly. It is applied on the testicles, for the treatment of hydrocele.
• Typhonium trilobatum Schott (Araceae)
Loc.: Hathikote forest 19717
Uses: The tuberous root paste is applied externally on the testicles for three days, for the treatment of hydrocele.
| Discussion|| |
It is analyzed that the underground parts (10) are mostly used, followed by leaves (3), fruit, and the whole plant (1in each) for the treatment of hydrocele in the area. As far as the method of preparation and mode of use is concerned, 11 plants are used externally as paste, two as hot fomentation, and three internally, for curing the disorder. The scrutiny of the relevant literature also reveals that any part of the 13 plants has not been recorded earlier, for the treatment of this disorder. However, another species of Calotropis and fruits of Schrebera swietenioides have reported for hydrocele by Ambasta, 1986, and Jain, 1991. Therefore, phytochemical and biological screening of these plant parts against hydrocele is needed, for verification of tribal claims and isolation of active constituents.
| References|| |
|1.||Bhatt SC, Bhargava GK, editors. Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories- Orissa. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications; 2006. |
|2.||Aminuddin, Girach RD. Native phytotherapy among the Paudi Bhuinya of Bonai Hills. Ethnobotany 1996;8:66-70. |
|3.||Bal SN. Useful plants of Mayurbhanj state in Orissa. Rec Bot Surv India 1942;6:1-119. |
|4.||Behera KK. Ethno botanical studies of Kaptipada subdivision. M. Phill. Thesis, Ravenshaw College, Cuttak: Utakal University; 2003. |
|5.||Behera KK. Plants used for gynecological disorders by tribals of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India. Ethnobot Lealf 2006;10:129-38. |
|6.||Behera KK, Mishra NM, Rout GR. Potential ethnomedicinal plants at Kaptipada forest range Orissa, India and their uses. J Econ Taxon Bot 2008a; 32 (suppl):194-202. |
|7.||Behera KK, Mishra NM, Dhal NK, Rout NC. Wild Edible plants of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India J Econ Taxon Bot 2008b;32 (suppl):305-14. |
|8.||Brahmam M, Saxena HO. Ethnobotany of Gandhamardan Hills - Some Noteworthy Folk-Medicinal Uses. Ethnobotany1990; 2:71-9. |
|9.||Girach RD, Aminuddin, Ahmad M. Medicinal ethnobotany of Sundargarh, Orissa, India. Pharm Biol 1998;36:20-4. |
|10.||Jain SK. Some magico-religious beliefs about plants among adivasi of Orissa. Adivasi 1971;12:39-44. |
|11.||Kumar J, Raut SD, Das MK. The Medicinal Plants of Hathikote Forests of District Mayurbhanj, Orissa- Need for Conservation. Indian Forester 2006;132:43-63. |
|12.||Misra RC. Therapeutic uses of some seeds among the tribals of Gandhamardan hill range, Orissa. Indian J Trad Knowl 2004;3:105-15. |
|13.||Misra RC, Das P. Wild poisonous seeds: Some notable species from Gandhamardan Hill ranges of Orissa. J Econ Taxon Bot 2003;27:513-8. |
|14.||Mohapatra SP, Sahoo HP. Some lesser known medicinal plants of the Kondha and Gond tribes of Bolangir, Orissa, India. Ethnobot leaf 2008;12:1003-6. |
|15.||Mudgal V, Pal DC. Medicinal Plants used by Tribals of Mayurbhanj (Orissa).Bull Bot Surv India 1980;22:59-62. |
|16.||Mukherjee A, Namhata D. Medicinal plant lore of the tribals of Sundargarh district, Orissa. Ethnobotany1990;2:57-60. |
|17.||Pandey AK, Rout SD. Medicinal Plants of Similipal Biosphere Reserve: Sustainable utilization and Conservation. In: Proc Nat Conf. Sagar (M.P.): Sustainable Utilization of Biological Resources; 2001. p. 6-7. |
|18.||Pandey AK, Rout SD. Ethno botanical uses of plants of Similipal Biosphere Reserve (Orissa). Ethnobotany 2006;18:102-6. |
|19.||Pandey AK, Rout SD, Pandit N. Medicinal plants of similipal biosphere reserve. In: Das AP, editor. Perspective of Plant Biodiversity. Dehradun: Bishan Singh Mahinder Pal Singh; 2002. p. 681-96. |
|20.||Rout SD. Medicinal Plants of Similipal Biosphere Reserve. Ph.D. Thesis, Bhagalpur: TM Bhagalpur University; 2005. |
|21.||Rout SD. Ethnobotany of Diversified wild edible fruit plants in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa. Ethnobotany 2007;19:137-9. |
|22.||Rout SD, Pandey AK. Some Wild Edible and other useful plants of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. In: Das AP, Pandey AK, editors. Advances in Ethnobotany. Dehradun: Bishan Singh Mahinder Pal Singh; 2007a. p. 61-72. |
|23.||Rout SD, Pandey AK. Ethnomedicobiology of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa. In: Das AP, Pandey AK, editors. Advances in Ethnobotany. Dehradun: Bishan Singh Mahinder Pal Singh; 2007b. p. 247-52. |
|24.||Sarkar N, Rudra S, Basu SK. Ethnobotany of Bangriposi, Mayurbhanj, Orissa. J Econ Taxon Bot 1999;23:509-14. |
|25.||Satapathy KB, Panda PC. Medicinal uses of some plants among the tribals of Sundargarh district, Orissa. J Econ Tax Bot Add Ser 1992;10:241-9. |
|26.||Satapathy KB, Brahamam M. Some medicinal plants used by the tribals of Sundargarh district, Orissa. In: Jain SK, editor. Ethnobotany in Human Welfare. New Delhi: Deep Publication; 1996. p. 153-8. |
|27.||Saxena HO, Brahmam M. The flora of Simlipahar (Similipal) Orissa with particular reference to the potential Economic plants. Bhubaneswar: Regional Research Laboratory; 1989. |
|28.||Saxena HO, Brahmam M, Datta PK. Ethno botanical studies in Similipahar forests of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa). Bull Bot Surv India 1988;10:83-9. |
|29.||Singh H, Srivastava SC, Krishna G, Kumar A. Comprehensive Ethnobotanical study of Sundargarh District, Orissa, India. In: Trivedi PC, editor. Ethnic Tribes and Medicinal Plants. Jaipur: Pointer Publishers; 2010a. p. 89-106. |
|30.||Singh H, Krishna G, Baske PK. Plants used in the treatment of joint diseases (rheumatism, arthritis, gout and lumbago) in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha, India. Report Opin 2010b;2:22-6. |
|31.||Singh H, Krishna G, Baske PK. Traditional phytotherapy for leucorrhoea in Mayurbhanj District, Odisha. Ethnobotany 2010c;22:128-31. |
|32.||Tripathy NK, Behera N. Traditional methods of crop protection used in Bolangir district of Orissa. Ethnobotany 2008;20:147-9. |
|33.||Yoganarsimhan SN, Dutta PK. Medicinal Plants of Orissa- a preliminary survey of Similipahar Forests, Mayurbhanj district, Orissa. Nagarjun 1972;15:25-7. |
|34.||Haines HH. The Botany of Bihar and Orissa.Vol3. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India; 1961. |
|35.||Mooney HF. Some addition to the botany of Bihar and Orissa. Ind For Rec 1941;3:63-119. |
|36.||Mooney HF. Supplement to botany of Bihar and Orissa. Ranchi, India: Catholic Press; 1950. |
|37.||Saxena HO, Brahmam M. The Flora of Orissa. Vol 4. Bhubaneswar: RRL; 1994-96. |
|38.||Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org [Last accessed on 2012 Jul 18]. |
|39.||Jain SK. Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany. New Delhi: Deep Publications; 1991. |
|40.||Ambasta SP, editor. The Useful Plants of India. New Delhi: NISCAIR, CSIR; 2006. |
|41.||Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1956. |