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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 181-184

Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira root


1 Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Sahauran, Kharar, Mohali, Punjab, India
2 School of Pharmacy, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, Railmajra, Ropar, Punjab, India

Date of Web Publication18-Feb-2013

Correspondence Address:
Jhuma Samanta
Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Sahauran, Kharar, Mohali, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0257-7941.107352

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  Abstract 

Background: In ethno-medicinal practices, the roots of Cissampelos pareira(Patha) are used in the treatment of various ailments related to urinary problems and skin infections, and in tumorinhibitor activity, antibacterial, antimalarial, diuretic activity,anticonvulsant activity etc., The main problem encountered in standardization of Ayurvedic drugs is proper identification of the source plant.
Materials and Methods: The macroscopic features of each anatomical component have been observed by a high-resolution camera.The moisture content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water-alcohol and ether extractive values of the powdered sampleswere determined by the method as per WHO guidelines. The phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira root was performed by the standard chemical ltests and by TLC on silica gel G using solvent systems proposed by Harborne.
Result: The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, radial medullary rays, and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals had also been found. Phytochemical screening revealed that the Cissampelos pareira root extract contains terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. Alkaloids and essential oil were detected in TLC of the Cissampelos pareira root extract developed using blends of methanol:concentrated ammonia (200:3) and n-butanol:acetone:water (3:1:1) and benzene:ethyl acetate:formic acid(9:7:4) as solvent systems for alkaloid whereas chloroform(100%), benzene (100%) ,chloroform:benzene(1:1),and ether:benzene(1:1) as solvent systems for essential oil.
Conclusion: These findings will be useful toward establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity,quality, and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.

Keywords: Cissampelos pareira , pharmacognostic standards, pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation


How to cite this article:
Samanta J, Bhattacharya S, Rayat R. Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira root. Ancient Sci Life 2012;31:181-4

How to cite this URL:
Samanta J, Bhattacharya S, Rayat R. Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira root. Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Aug 15];31:181-4. Available from: http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2012/31/4/181/107352


  Introduction Top


Cissampelos pareira Linn (family: Menispermaceae) is a perennial climbing herb/shrub with small greenish-yellow flower. It belongs to the genus Cissampelos, of which 30-40 species are distributed in the tropical and subtropical world. One species is found in India. [1] It was first described from Latin America, but actually occurs throughout the tropics. Cissampelos pareira, commonly known as Bhatindupat in Punjab, is a perennial climbing shrub with small greenish-yellow flowers, palate or orbicular-reniform, ovate-sub-reniform leaves with truncate cordate base, glabrous, or hairy above up to 3-12 cm long. Cissampelos pareira is very widespread and locally common. It is used locally to cure gastrointestinal complaints such as diarrhea, dysentery, ulcers, colic, intestinal worms and digestive complaints, and also urogenital problems such as menstrual problems, venereal diseases, infertility, uterine bleeding, and threatening miscarriage. [2] A rhizome decoction or leaves are also widely taken or externally applied as febrifuge and stomachic, and against cough, heart trouble, rheumatism, jaundice, snake bites, and skin infections such as sores, boils, scabies, and childhood eczema. [3],[4] Tribal people in India use the plant to prevent pregnancy. [5],[6],[7]

In the market, three plants Cissampelos pareira, Cyclea peltata, and Stephania japonica (Fam. Menispermaceae) are being used as a source of Patha. Standardization problem of Cissampelos pareira is encountered in proper identification of the source plant. Therefore, an establishment of pharmacognostical standards on identification, purity, quality, and classification of the Cissampelos pareira is required. Therefore, phytochemical characteristics and pharmacognostic standards of Cissampelos pareira root of the territory of Chandigarh, India, were investigated. Microscopic characteristics were observed under a light microscope. Physicochemical properties-including loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water alcohol and ether extractive values-were determined. Phytochemical screening for major groups of compounds were performed, and a thin-layer chromatography of methanolic extract of the air dried powdered root of Cissampelos pareira was performed.


  Materials and Methods Top


Collection of plant material

Samples of Cissampelos pareira were collected from Panchkula district of Haryana. Botanical identification was performed in Botany Department of Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, in comparison with the existing specimen number PB/6954. Plant materials were shade dried and ground to coarse powder. All reagents used in quantitative analysis and chemical investigation were of analytical grade and manufactured by e-Marc, Ranbaxy, and S.D. fine chemicals.

Qualitative investigation

The macroscopic features of the dried powdered root of Cissampelos pareira was determined using the method of Evans. [8] Picture of the macroscopic features of powdered root had been taken by a high-resolution camera (SONY, 14.1 megapixel Digital Camera). Snaps are shown in [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6].
Figure 1: Lignified xylem vessels

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Figure 2: Wavy epidermis

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Figure 3: Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals

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Figure 4: Radial medullary rays

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Figure 5: Biseriate radial medullary rays

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Figure 6: Unicellular trichome

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Quantitative investigation

The moisture content, ash, and extractive values of the powdered samples were determined by the method as described in WHO guidelines. [9]

Chemical investigation

About 100 g of the air-dried powdered plant root of Cissampelos pareira was extracted by the maceration method with different solvents, starting from petroleum ether followed by light petroleum, cyclohexane, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Each time before extracting with the next solvent, the powdered material was air dried below 50°C; each extract was concentrated by distilling off the solvent and evaporating to dryness on a water bath. The extracts were subjected for phytochemical screening. The phytochemical investigation was performed using the standard chemical tests as described in "Practical Pharmacognosy" by Kokate [10] and in "The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals" by Brain and Turner. [11] All TLCs had been performed according to methods proposed by Harborne. [12] The methanolic extract of the Cissampelos pareira root was examined by TLC on silica gel G using following solvent systems mentioned in [Table 1]. and the corresponding Rf (×100) were computed.
Table 1: Phytochemical investigation of Cissampelos pareira root methanolic extract


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  Results and Discussion Top


Microscopy of dried powdered root had shown [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6] that the presence of lignified xylem vessels, wavy epidermis, biseriate radial medullary rays, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals, and unicellular trichomes. The percentage of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and different extractive values are listed in [Table 2].
Table 2: Pharmacognostic evaluation of the dried powdered Cissampelos pareira root


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The quantitative determination of some pharmacognostic parameters is useful for setting standards for crude drugs. The physical constant evaluation is an important parameter in detecting adulteration or improper handling of the drug. Various ash values are important to determine purity of the drug, i.e. the presence or absence of foreign inorganic matter. Since the plant Cissampelos pareira is useful in the traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, it is important to standardize it for use as a drug. The pharmacognostic constants for the root of this plant, the diagnostic microscopic features, and the numerical standards reported in this work could be useful for the compilation of a suitable monograph.

The dried powdered Cissampelos pareira root was extracted by the maceration method with different solvents, starting from petroleum ether followed by light petroleum, cyclohexane, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, and methanol. The quantity of extract was found to be maximum in the case of methanolic extract and minimum in the case of benzene and chloroform extract. Results of chemical tests indicate that the methanolic extract of the root contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, terpenoids, but no flavonoids, and the results are shown in [Table 3]. The findings of TLC indicate that the root contains alkaloids, essential oils, but no flavonoids, which are shown in [Table 1]. This study can be compared with studies of Nishanthi et al. and Nirmal, who had reported extraction and preliminary phytochemical investigation on the whole plant of Peperomia tetraphylla, and pharmacognostic study of Sesbania sesban wood. [13],[14]
Table 3: TLC of Cissampelos pareira root methanolic extract


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Different chemical compounds such as triterpene, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, and carbohydrates were detected in the plant, which could make the plant useful for treating different ailments and having potential of providing useful drugs of human use. Traditionally and experimentally, it has been found that the Cissampelos pareira root is a potential herbal medicinal agent. [15]


  Acknowledgments Top


The authors are thankful to Rayat and Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Sahauran, Kharar, Mohali, Punjab, for providing the facilities during the studies.

 
  References Top

1.The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products-Raw Materials Series, Publication and Information Directorate. Vol. 3. New Delhi: CSIR; 1992. p. 591-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Amresh G, Reddy GD, Rao CV, Shirwaikar A. Ethnomedical value of Cissampelos pareira extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea. Acta Pharmaceutica 2004;54:27-35.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Amresh G, Reddy GD, Rao CV, Singh PN. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Cissampelos pareira root in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:526-31.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Amresh G, Singh PN, Rao CV. Antinociceptive and antiarthritic activity of Cissampelos pareira roots. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111:531-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Bullough CH, Leary WP. Herbal medicines used by traditional birth attendants in Malawi. Trop Geograph Med 1982;34:81-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Tiwari KC, Majumder R, Bhattacharya S. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control. Int J Crude Drug Res 1982;20:133-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Feng PC, Haynes LJ, Magnus KE, Plummer JR, Sherratt HS. Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 1962;14:556-61.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Evans WC. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy. 14 th ed. London: WB Sounders Company Ltd; 1996. p. 545-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials, World Health Organization (Geneva). Delhi: AITBS Publishers and Distributor; 2004. p. 28-30.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4 th ed. New Delhi, India: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994. p. 112-20.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Brain KR, Turner TD. The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals. Bristol, South West England: Wright Science Technica; 1975. p. 81-2.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3 rd ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1998. p. 63-89,117-22,204-12.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Nishanthi M, Mohanambal E, Narendiran S, Shankar M, Vijey Aanandhi M, Vijayakumar B. Extraction and preliminary phytochemical investigation on whole plant of Peperomia tetraphylla. Int J Phytopharmacol 2012;3:173-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Nirmal SA, Bairagi JH, Zaware BB, Dighe NS, Dighe SB. Pharmacognostic study of Sesbania sesban wood. Intl J Pharma Res Dev 2009;1:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Samanta J, Bhattacharya S. Cissampelos Pareira: A promising antifertility agent. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharma 2012;2:439-42.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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