Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Users Online: 549 | Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-48

Physico-chemical analysis of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma prepared by two methods


1 Department of Rasashastra, K. L. E. University's Shri. B. M. K. Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belgaum, India
2 A. V. S. Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Bijapur, Karnataka, India
3 L. K. R Ayurveda Medical College, Gadhinglaj, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication21-Jun-2013

Correspondence Address:
Vijaykumar Kotrannavar
Department of Rasashastra, K. L. E. University's Shri. B. M. K. Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belgaum - 590 003, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0257-7941.113801

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) is an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feathers by employing two different methods as mentioned in Siddhayogasaṅgraha and Bhaiṣajya saṁhitā. It is mainly indicated in vomiting, hiccough, and respiratory disorder. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame and the other by giving Gajapuṭa (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes). The products so obtained were subjected to various physico-chemical studies to find out ash value, pH value, specific gravity, moisture content, preliminary organic analysis, gravimetric analysis, chemical components, and to lay-down the pharmacopeial standards for standardization of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma. Results and Conclusion: Both the Bhasmas exhibited marked difference in color, moisture content, and percentage of inorganic compounds. The Bhasma prepared by Gajapuṭa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in larger quantity, and lower moisture content.

Keywords: Gajapuṭa method, ghee flame method, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma, physico - chemical analysis


How to cite this article:
Kotrannavar V, Sarashetty R, Kanthi V. Physico-chemical analysis of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma prepared by two methods . Ancient Sci Life 2012;32:45-8

How to cite this URL:
Kotrannavar V, Sarashetty R, Kanthi V. Physico-chemical analysis of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma prepared by two methods . Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Apr 26];32:45-8. Available from: http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2012/32/1/45/113801


  Introduction Top


Pavo cristatus (Peacock) is the national bird of India. It consists of typical quill feather (helpful in flying) which can be used to prepare Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather). It is widely used in Ayurveda to treat diseases like vomiting, hiccough, respiratory disorder etc.[1] Classical texts such as Siddhayogasangraha and Bhaisajya saṁhitā mention distinct procedures for the preparation of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma. In Siddhayogasagraha, we find in detail, the method of burning the peacock feathers on ghee flame[2] whereas Bhaiṣajya saṁhitā suggests application of four Gajapuas (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C four times in various media by using a thousand cow dung cakes) to get the Mayūrapuccha Bhasma.[3] Both the preparations are simple and require minimum and easily available ingredients. Neither research on preparation of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma using methods mentioned in classics nor a pharmacopeial standard on it has been attempted, this study is intended to fill this lacunae.


  Aims and Objectives Top


The present study was aimed at:

  1. Assessing the physico-chemical components of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) prepared by ghee flame method and Gajapua (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes) method.
  2. Laying down the pharmacopeial standards for the assessment of standard qualities of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather).



  Materials and Methods Top


A two- part methodology was used.

Pharmaceutical part: Preparation of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma by two different classical methods.

  1. Ghee flame method
  2. Gajapua method (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000oC by using a thousand cow dung cakes).


Analytical part: Subjecting both the samples to physico- chemical analysis.

Pharmaceutical part (preparation of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma)

Collection of drug

Peacock feathers, herbal drugs, and other materials required for the purpose were collected and used only after obtaining authentication for pharmaceutical preparation, by experts from the department of Rasashastra and Dravyaguna.

Materials (ingredients) required

  1. Ghee Flame Method: Peacock feathers, ghee.
  2. Gajapua Method: Peacock feathers, Palāśamūla (Butea monosperma) Kvātha (decoction), Droṇapuṣpi (Leucas cephalotes spreng) Svarasa (juice), and Cakramarda (Cassiatora) svarasa (juice).


Method of preparation

  1. Ghee Flame Method (burning peacock feathers on ghee flame): Peacock feathers were burnt on ghee flame and the ash so obtained was triturated in khalva yantra (mortar and pestle) until it got converted into a black powder. The powder was then collected and preserved in an air tight glass container.
  2. Gajapua Method (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes): Peacock feathers were cut into small pieces, kept in sharava samputa (sealed in earthen crucibles) and subjected to Gajapua using a thousand cow dung cakes. After allowing the crucibles to cool by themselves, they were separated and a black powder was collected. The powder was then triturated with Palāśamūla Kvātha (decoction of Butea monosperma) and when the mixture attained proper consistency, cakrikas (pellets) were made and dried in the shade. They were then transferred to sharava samputa (sealed in earthen crucibles) and subjected to Gajapua using a thousand cow dung cakes. The same procedure was once again repeated with Droṇapuṣpi svarasa (juice of Leucas cephalotes spreng) and Cakramarda svarasa (juice of cassiatora), respectively. After each trituration one Gajapua was applied. In this manner, a total four Gajapuas were applied to get a brownish black coloured Mayūrapuccha Bhasma.


The collection of samples is given in [Table 1].
Table 1:

Click here to view


Pharmaceutical observations and results

Pharmaceutical observations were carried out for both sample A and B. The observations and results are given in [Table 2].
Table 2:

Click here to view


Analytical part: Physico-chemical analysis

Sample A and B were evaluated for physico-chemical properties by using standard methods like solubility test, ash value, pH value, specific gravity, moisture content,[4] preliminary organic analysis,[5] gravimetric analysis etc., The samples thus obtained passed Bhasma parīkṣās (tests for properly prepared calx) specifically the dadhi parīkṣā (curd test). For the curd test, a pinch of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma was sprinkled on curd kept in an earthen vessel and the same was observed for change of colour in the curd. The curd exhibited no change in color.


  Observations and Results Top


Physico-chemical analyses were carried out for both sample A and B. The observations and results are given in [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6] and [Table 7].
Table 3:

Click here to view
Table 4:

Click here to view
Table 5:

Click here to view
Table 6:

Click here to view
Table 7:

Click here to view


Solubility test

Sample A and B were subjected for solubility test with different solvents given in [Table 4].

Quantitative estimation of inorganic elements

Sample A and B were subjected to quantitative estimation for inorganic elements.[6]


  Discussion Top


  • Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) was prepared by two different methods and both the samples were subjected to organoleptic and physical constants study. The observations revealed that sample A has an unpleasant odor; it is soft to touch; it is tasteless and has a black amorphous powder appearance. Sample B appears as brownish black (due to bhavana dravyas used) micro fine powder form (due to four Gajapuas - burning the peacock feathers at about 1000oC by using a thousand cow dung cakes).
  • Quantitative estimation of inorganic elements was carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The sample B contains Cu, Fe, Zn, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Al in larger quantity than sample A but in a permissible amount, which may be due to the expressed juice of Pañcāṅga of Cakramarda (Cassiatora contains Na, K, Ca, Mn, Fe) and Palāśamūla Kvātha (decoction of Butea monosperma - contains Na, K) used for trituration in the preparation.[7],[8]
  • The pH value of sample A and B were 7.91 and 7.01 respectively. Hence, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma prepared by two separate methods does not have much difference in their pH values.
  • Moisture content of sample A and sample B were 4% and 1%, respectively. It was found to be less in sample B because it was prepared by applying four Gajapuas (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000oC by using a thousand cow dung cakes).
  • Organic compounds were absent in sample A and sample B because at the time of preparation of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) peacock feathers were burnt at about 100oC in sample A and at about 1000oC in sample B, which may lead to burning of organic components.[9] In sample A, presence of saponins and flavonoids are due to burning peacock feathers on ghee flame.



  Conclusion Top


  • Sample B has less moisture (1%) content which may contribute to an increase of its stability.
  • The pH value of sample A and B was neutral.
  • The pH value of sample A and B indicates no significant difference.
  • As sample B has larger percentage of ash, it consists of inorganic elements in higher quantity and indicates that the Bhasma was prepared properly.
  • Sample B contains copper, iron, zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminium in larger quantity than sample A, but in a permissible amount, which is essential and beneficial to human body.
  • Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) prepared by Gajapua method contains essential and beneficial elements, such as saponins, flavonoids, electrolytes in larger quantity with natural pH.



  Acknowledgments Top


We profusely thank Pharmacology Department of B.L.D.E Pharmacy College for helping us with facilities to carry out this work.

 
  References Top

1.Lakshmipatishastri. Chardi nidhanam. In: Brahmashankar S, editor. Yoga Ratnakar. Purvardha. 8 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Samsthana; 2004. p. 453.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Yadavaji TA. Vamanaadhikara. In: Siddhayogasangraha. 13 th ed. Allahabad: Byaidyanatha Ayurveda Bhavan Limited; 2008. p. 45.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Bhaishajya Samhita (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia). Bhasma Prakarana. 1 st ed. Ahmadabad: Ministry of Health Gujarat; 1966. p. 391.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Indian Pharmacopeia. Chemical tests and assay appendix-3. vol. 1 and 2., 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 1985. p. A-74, A-118.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Carl AB, Edward RA. Chemical tests and assay. Teitz's Text Book of Clinical Chemistry. 2 nd ed. London: W. B. Saunders Company; 1994. p. 206,2059,1324,1339,1905,1357.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.John HB. Essential and Trace Ions. 1 st ed. Bombay: Varganesh Publishing House; 1986. p. 213-40, 277.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Mathur DS. Chardhirogakarmavipaka. Bruhat Nighantu Ratnakar. vol. 5, 1 st ed. Mumbai: Khemraj Shrikrishnadass Publishers; 2011. p. 326.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Bhavamishra, Guduchyadi Varga, Vatadi Varga. In: Chunekar KC, editor. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu. 6 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2004. p. 125-6,463-4,536-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Vaidya SS, Dhole VA. Mashi Kalpa. In: Bhaishajya Kalpana, editor. 4 th ed. Pune: Anmol Prakashan; 1994. p. 96.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Aims and Objectives
Materials and Me...
Observations and...
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1252    
    Printed56    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded181    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal