Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Users Online: 313 | Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 85-89

Role of quassinoids as potential antimalarial agents: An in silico approach


Department of Biochemistry, Cachet Labs, Yousufguda, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Date of Web Publication14-Dec-2015

Correspondence Address:
Shailima Rampogu
Department of Biochemistry, Cachet Labs, Yousufguda, Hyderabad, Telangana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0257-7941.171676

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: Malaria is an infection caused by mosquitoes in human beings which can be dangerous if untreated. A well known plant product, quassinoids are known to have antimalarial activity. These bioactive phytochemicals belong to the triterpene family. Quassinoids are used in the present study to act against malarial dihydrofolate reductase (Pf-DHFR), a potential antimalarial target. Nevertheless, viṣama jvara (~malaria) has been treated with the bark of Cinchona since a long time.
Aim: The aim of the present experiment is to perform the protein-ligand docking for Pf- DHFR and Quassinoids and study their binding affinities.
Setting and Design: The software used for the present study is the discovery studio (Accelrys 2.1), Protein Data Bank (PDB), and Chemsketch.
Materials and Methods: The protein for the present study was imported from protein data bank with the PDB Id, 4dpd and was prepared for docking. The ligands used for the study are the quassinoids. They were drawn using chemsketch and the 3D structures were generated. The docking was done subsequently.
Statistical Analysis Used: Molecular modeling technique was used for the protein-ligand docking analysis.
Results: The docking results showed that the Quassinoids Model_1 showed the highest dock score of 40.728.
Conclusion: The present study proves the promising potential of quassinoids as novel drugs against malaria. The dock results conclude that the quassinoids can be adopted as an alternative drug against malaria.

Keywords: 4dpd, malaria, P. falciparum, protein-ligand docking, quassinoids


How to cite this article:
Rampogu S. Role of quassinoids as potential antimalarial agents: An in silico approach. Ancient Sci Life 2015;35:85-9

How to cite this URL:
Rampogu S. Role of quassinoids as potential antimalarial agents: An in silico approach. Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 19];35:85-9. Available from: http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2015/35/2/85/171676


  Introduction Top


Quassinoids are the naturally available plant agents which exhibit a host of biological activities [1],[2],[3],[4],[5] seen mostly in Simaroubaceae species.[6] These bioactive phytochemical agents belong to the triterpene [7] chemical family. The main active groups of quassinoids are ailanthionone, glaucorubinone and holacanthone besides benzoquinone, canthin, dehydroglaucarubinone, glaucarubine, simarolide, sitosole and melianone.

The picrasane skeleton, a pentacyclic derivative of the Quassinoids have shown a remarkable antitumor activity.[7] Quassinoids also are known for their potent antimalarial,[8] antimicrobial [9] and antiprotozoal [10] activities. The antimalarial activity of the quassinoids was evaluated earlier by the folate/anlifolates the drugs which prevent folic acid production and is essential for the folate dependent enzymes. Whereas, quassinoids are the plant extracts belonging to the simaroubceae family with 150 different compounds. These plant extracts are known widely for their anti-leukemic activity besides showing a host of other medicinal properties.

The enzyme malarial dihydrofolate reductase (Pf-DHFR) (E.C.1.5.1.3)[11] is the target for antifolate antimalarial drugs such as pyrimethamine and cycloguanil.[12] Dihydrofolate reductase is a bi-functional enzyme and is critical for folate metabolism. It involves in de novo dTMP biosynthesis, containing two polypeptide chains, A and B with 608 amino acid residues existing along with the heteromeric compounds (e.g., ligands, co-factors, ions, modified amino acids, etc.) [Figure 1].[13] But their efficacy has been compromised by mutations at various sites on the enzymes.[3]
Figure 1: Structure of 4dpd

Click here to view


The present experiment aims to create the analogues for quassinoids exploiting their antimalarial property and studying the binding affinity of these analogues against malarial DHFR, a validated target for malaria.

Malaria and its treatment in Ayurveda

Malarial parasites are probably assumed to be from Africa and exist even before the earliest known history.[14] In Ayurveda malaria like symptoms are called as viṣama jvara. It is one of the known infectious diseases which recurs if untreated or ignored and could turn out to be epidemic and fatal.[15] During the times of Atharva Veda (1500 BC) certain types of malarial fevers were prevelant which were associated with trembling, rigor, headache, debility etc. These are the common symptoms seen in association with malaria.

According to Ayurveda, the pathology of the disease is studied under pañcalakṣaṇa nidāna which helps [14] in the efficient diagnosis of the disease. The pañcalakṣaṇas are nidāna, pūrvarūpa, rūpa, samprāīpti and upaśaya.

Once the disease and its manifestation is vivid, the treatment can be performed [15] by removal of the cause or alternating the internal environment known as parivarjana and prakṛti vighāta respectively.[14]

The bark of the cinchona tree was first used for treating malaria by native Peruvian Indians.[16] Herbs and medicinal plants were the medicines of choice for treating malaria. Reported cases exist the use of quassinoids in treating against malaria.[17],[18],[19],[20] Some of the plants used in treating malaria are: Cinchona spp., quasinoids, Cassia accidental, Caesalpinia crista, Morinda lucida, Picrasma nitida, Brucea javanica, Artemisia annua, Plumbago benesis, Azadirachta indica.


  Materials and Methods Top


Ligands preparation

The quassinoids act as ligands for the present study and were drawn using chemsketch (ACD Labs 12.0). Removal of duplicates was done and bonds were then added to it.

Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARM m) force field was used to minimize the energy and thereafter the 3D structures were generated.

Further, 20 ligands were designed by substituting the groups at R1 position and Y position.[21] This was followed by the ligand optimization [Figure 2].
Figure 2: General structure with “Y” side chain

Click here to view


Substituents of "Y"

If the "Y" group is substituted with substituents with R8 and R9[Table 1].
Table 1: “Y” substituents

Click here to view


Protein preparation

The protein for the present study was imported from PDB (Protein Data Bank). The X-ray crystal structure with high resolution of 2.5 A o malarial DHFR (Dihydrofolate reductase) PDB ID: 4dpd was imported into the discovery studio (Accelrys 2.1).

Protein preparation was carried out by correcting the missing residues and removing the complexes bound to receptor molecules and the water molecules between the ligands and protein.[22]

The structure is then refined using appropriate charges and parameters and an energy minimization was carried out using steepest descent gradient until the convergence gradient was satisfied, implying that the protein has reached its least energy level.

The active site pockets of the protein malarial DHFR were identified using eraser algorithm and a sphere was created around the active site. As the protein 4dpd is known as an antifolates protein, the present investigation aims at identifying the active site of the protein. The active site of the protein was predicted by using the CAST p [23] software which reveals the packet information. It was identified that the pocket ID 142 exhibited the highest area and volume of 4940.3 and 16623 respectively [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Active site identification with pocket information

Click here to view


Docking studies

This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of the ligand molecules in the active region of the protein and to predict the binding modes and affinities between the ligand and the protein molecule. The active site of the protein is first identified and it is defined as the binding site.

The binding sites are defined based on the ligand present in the PDB file which is followed by site sphere definition.

For accurate docking of ligands into protein active sites, the docking method used in this study is ligand fit. Dock scores are used to estimate the ligand binding energies.

Ligand – protein docking

Protein – ligand docking is a molecular modeling technique that aims at predicting the position and orientation of the ligand when it binds to the proteins. This method is mostly employed in designing new drugs.

The CHARMm-based docking program, which is called DOCK algorithm, offers a full ligand flexibility (including bonds, angles, dihedrals). This was employed to find the potential binding mode between both the protein and the ligand. In the present experiment the quassinoid-analogues were docked with the malarial DHFR.


  Results and Discussion Top


The ligands in the present investigation, quassinoids interacted with the protein to generate 57 poses [Table 2]. Out of the 20 ligands selected, only 3 quassinoids showed binding affinity with the protein. The highest dock score was found with Quassinoid_Model_1 showing 40.728, succeeded by quassinoid_model_4, with a dock score of 38.809 and Quassinoid_model_2 with 38.553 dock score respectively [Table 3]. The dock results seem to explain that substituting groups on "Y," R8 and R9 with "H" atom, shows the maximum binding affinity proving it to be a potential anti-malarial agent. The amino acids, which interact with the H of Quassinoid sSER 111, ILE112, ILE164, PHE 58, TRY 170 [Figure 4] and [Figure 5].
Table 2: Quassinoids with dock scores

Click here to view
Table 3: High dock scores

Click here to view
Figure 4: The H-bond interactions of quassinoid 1 with active site residues of quassinoid 1 with DHFR from Plasmodium falciparum

Click here to view
Figure 5: Ligand map interaction

Click here to view


Because the quassinoid_model_1 showed the highest dock score, it can hence be considered as the best protein-ligand pose among 57 poses generated.

Interaction of quassinoids with active site residues

The amino acids, which interact with the H of Quassinoid_1 are SER 111, ILE112, ILE164, PHE 58, TRY 170.


  Conclusion Top


Malaria is a mosquito borne disease which is caused by Plasmodium which in severe cases causes death. The present experiment is a novel approach with the objective of designing the drugs for malaria using the medicinal plants. Quassinoids are the plants with many medicinal values. Quassinoids were docked with the protein 4dpd, a target antimalarial drug. It is evident that the "Y" substitutents play an essential role in increasing the efficacy of the drug. When the R8 and R9 positions of the "Y" group are replaced with "H" group, respectively, it leads to an increase in drug efficacy, followed by NO2 and CH3 group substituents. Further, pharmacological studies are needed to better assess their efficacy. The results seem promising and this proves that the Quassinoids can be used as new drugs for Malaria.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Pierré A, Robert-Géro M, Tempête C, Polonsky J. Structural requirements of quassinoids for the inhibition of cell transformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1980;93:675-86.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Vardhini SR. Article: Insilico analysis of protein-ligand docking of DHFR (Dihydro folate reductase) and quassinoids. Int J Comput Appl 2013;62:14-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Leskinen V, Polonsky J, Bhatnagar S. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids. J Chem Ecol 1984;10:1497-507.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kupchan SM, Lacadie JA, Howie GA, Sickles BR, Structural requirements for biological activity among antileukemic glaucarubolone ester quassinoids, J Med Chem 1976;19:1130-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Grieco P, Ferrino S, Vidari G. Total synthesis of dl-quassin J Am Chem Soc 1980; 102: 7586-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
John A. Beutler, Moon-Il Kang, Francis Robert, Jason A. Clement, Quassinoid Inhibition of AP-1 Function Does Not Correlate with Cytotoxicity or Protein Synthesis Inhibition. J Nat Prod 2009;27;72:503-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Guo Z, Vangapandu S, Sindelar RW, Walker LA, Sindelar RD. Biologically active quassinoids and their chemistry: Potential leads for drug design. Front Med Chem 2009;4:285-308.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ang HH, Chan KL, Mak JW.In vitro antimalarial activity of quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia against Malaysian chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Planta Med 1995;61:177-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564-82.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Bawm S, Matsuura H, Elkhateeb A, Nabeta K, Subeki, Nonaka N, et al. In vitro antitrypanosomal activities of quassinoid compounds from the fruits of a medicinal plant, Brucea javanica. Vet Parasitol 2008;158:288-94.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Tahar R, de Pécoulas PE, Basco LK, Chiadmi M, Mazabraud A. Kinetic properties of dihydrofolate reductase from wild-type and mutant Plasmodium vivax expressed in Escherichia coli. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2001;113:241-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Fidock DA, Nomura T, Wellems TE. Cycloguanil and its parent compound proguanil demonstrate distinct activities against Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria parasites transformed with human dihydrofolate reductase. Mol Pharmacol 1998;54:1140-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Yuthavong Y, Tarnchompoo B, Vilaivan T, Chitnumsub P, Kamchonwongpaisan S, Charman SA, et al. Malarial dihydrofolate reductase as a paradigm for drug development against a resistance-compromised target. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:16823-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Available from: http://www.apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s17552en/s17552en.pdf. [Last accessed on 2014 Nov 20].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Willcox M, Bodekes G, Rasoanaivo P, Kyereme JA, editors. Transtational Medicinal Plants and Malaria. USA: CRC Press; 2004. p. 214-41.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Available from: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/malaria/readmore/history.html. [Last accessed on 2014 Nov 20].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
François G, Diakanamw C, Timperman G, Bringmann G, Steenackers T, Atassi G. et al. Antimalarial and cytotoxic potential of four quassinoids from and their structure-activity relationships. Int J Parasitol 1988;28:635-40.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Muhammad I, Samoylenko V. Antimalarial quassinoids: Past, present and future. Expert Opin Drug Discov 2007;2:1065-84.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Chordia MD, McCalmont WF, Smith KS, Smith PL. Regioselective synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-hydroxyl modified ailanthinone derivatives as antimalarials. Open J Synth Theory Appl 2013;2:91-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Cachet N, Hoakwie F, Bertani S, Bourdy G, Deharo E, Stien D, et al. Antimalarial activity of simalikalactone E, a new quassinoid from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009;53:4393-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Grieco PA, Morre DJ, Corbett TH, Valeriote. United States Patent Application Publication, Pub. No. US 2002/0019439; 14 February, 2002.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Vardhini SR. In silico evaluation for the potential naturally available drugs for breast cancer. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2014;34:174-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Dundas J, Ouyang Z, Tseng J, Binkowski A, Turpaz Y, Liang J. CASTp: Computed atlas of surface topography of proteins with structural and topographical mapping of functionally annotated residues. Nucleic Acids Res 2006;34:W116-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Identification of Novel Scaffolds with Dual Role as Antiepileptic and Anti-Breast Cancer
Shailima Rampogu,Ayoung Baek,Rohit S. Bavi,Minky Son,Guang Ping Cao,Raj Kumar,Chanin Park,Amir Zeb,Rabia Mukthar Rana,Seok Ju Park,Keun Woo Lee
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. 2018; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results and Disc...
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1942    
    Printed31    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded78    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal