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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-100

Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study


Department of RS and BK, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication14-Dec-2015

Correspondence Address:
Nidhi Khemuka
Grain Market Keolari, Dist. Seoni, Madhya Pradesh - 480 994
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0257-7941.171670

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  Abstract 

Background: Savīryatā-avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurvedic dosage forms is described in Śārgadharasahitā. Though the concepts have a strong background, we seek to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms. An attempt has been made in the present study to evaluate shelf-life of Kasaharītakī avaleha and its granules.
Materials and Methods: Raw materials were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and utilized after proper authentication in pharmacognosy lab. The avaleha and its granules were prepared in the departmental laboratory following classical guidelines and subjected to accelerated stability studies.
Results: Both the products were found to be free from microbial contamination. Heavy metals were within the prescribed limit. Changes in physico-chemical profiles at different intervals are insignificant. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of avaleha was found to be18 months and 27 months to the granules.
Conclusion: Stability of granules was found to be comparatively higher than the avaleha. This observation may be exclusive to Kasaharītakī avaleha. Studies on other avalehas and their granules need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation.

Keywords: Accelerated stability, Avaleha, granules, Saviryata avadhi, shelf life, stabilityand


How to cite this article:
Khemuka N, Galib R, Patgiri B J, Prajapati PK. Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study. Ancient Sci Life 2015;35:96-100

How to cite this URL:
Khemuka N, Galib R, Patgiri B J, Prajapati PK. Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study. Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 23];35:96-100. Available from: http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2015/35/2/96/171670


  Introduction Top


The time period during which the potency (vīrya) of a drug remain unaffected due to environmental factors or from microbial contamination is termed as “shelf life.”[1] Contemporarily another term, “expiry date,” which is the time period up to which a substance possess full safety and potency is used. But there is difference between shelf life and expiry date. A dosage can be safe after passing the shelf life, but may be of reduced potency. Whereas, in case of expiry date, there is no guarantee of both safety and efficacy after expiry.

Significance of shelf-life is highly appreciated and recognized in classical texts like Carakasaṃhitā, but the information is scattered. It has been said that the drug can be utilized for therapeutic purposes until it retains its fragrance, color, and taste etc.[2] The shelf life period finds mention after 12th century AD in Vaṅgasena,[3] Śārṅgadharasaṃhitā,[4] and Yogaratnākara,[5] etc.

Though general information is available, exact shelf life of individual formulations is not available. Considering this, an attempt has been made to evaluate shelf life of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules.


  Materials And Methods Top


Raw drugs

All the herbal drugs and madhu (honey) were procured from the Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Yavakṣāra was prepared in the dept. of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar. Khaṇḍaśarkarā (sugar candy) and guda (jaggery) were procured from the local market of Jamnagar. All the herbal drugs were authenticated in the Pharmacognosy Laboratory.

Preparation of drugs

Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha (KHA)[6] and Kaṃsaharītakī granules (KHG)[7] were prepared by following standard guidelines. Ratio of ingredients were the same in both formulations but sugar candy and harītakī powder were used in place of jaggery and harītakī pulp respectively in KHG. Ingredients of KHA are given in [Table 1].
Table 1: Formulation composition of Kaṃsaharītakīavaleha (KHA)

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Sample quantity and packing

The final products (KHA and KHG) of 100 g each were packed in sterile glass containers (200ml capacity) and stored in an accelerated stability study chamber.

Storage conditions in the stability chamber

Samples were stored at 40°C ± 2°C, and 75% ±5% RH.

Frequency of withdrawal

The products were analyzed initially, and at a gap of 1, 3, 6 months.

Parameters of evaluation

Basic analytical parameters including total solid content,[8] moisture %,[9] ash value,[10] acid insoluble ash,[11] pH value,[12] water soluble extractives,[13] methanol soluble extractives,[14] total fats, total sugars,[15] microbial contamination,[16] heavy metals,[17] were evaluated at intervals specified earlier.


  Observations and Results Top


The comparative organoleptic characters of the KHA and KHG are depicted in [Table 2]. Changes in the parameters at regular intervals were insignificant. Physico-chemical characters of the KHA and KHG at initial, 1, 3, 6-month interval were shown in [Table 3]. Microbial growth was found below prescribed limits in both drugs initially and after 6th month. Microbial count of KHG was less than KHA [Table 4]. Heavy metals in both samples were also found to be within the prescribed limits [Table 5].
Table 2: Comparative organoleptic characters of KHA and KHG

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Table 3: Physico-chemical profile of KHA and KHG at different intervals

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Table 4: Microbial growth in KHA and KHG

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Table 5: Heavy metals in KHA and KHG

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Based on this data; intercept and slope [Table 6] were calculated followed by expected time for 10% degradation for individual parameters [Table 7]. On extrapolation of the values, the shelf life of KHA was found to be 18 months and KHG as 27 months [Table 8].
Table 6: Intercept and slope of KHA and KHG for different parameters

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Table 7: Approximate period (in months) for 10% degradation of KHA and KHG

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Table 8: Extrapolation of shelf life in KHA and KHG

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  Discussion Top


Concept of shelf-life is well defined in the classics of Ayurveda. Śārṅgadhara was the first to collect information and placed it under the heading of Savīryatā Avadhi. Śārṅgadhara opines that the avalehas start to lose their therapeutic potency after a year. According to Yogaratnākara, shelf life period of any avaleha is six months.[18] The Govt. of India Gazette specifies the shelf life of Granules and avalehas as 3 years.[19] In addition, Ayurveda acāryas also opine that the potency of a dosage form always depends upon the place, season, storage conditions etc. It infers that the shelf-life of medicinal preparations can be increased by taking specific care of all such factors. In addition to these factors; processing techniques such as granulation,[20] Bhāvanā[21] also increase shelf life. The present study is a preliminary attempt to develop an easy to use and stable dosage form of avaleha (electuary) preparations. Though the granule form is more stable, on comparison, no changes in organoleptic characters were found in both the drugs at different levels of storage. KHA was found to be brownish black in color with aromatic odor and bitter and astringent in taste. KHG was creamish brown in color with aromatic odor, bitter and astringent in taste. Difference in colour of both was due to the use of harītakī pulp and jaggery in avaleha while harītakī powder and sugar candy in granules. Granules were not prepared using Harītakī pulp and jaggery due to their stickiness.

Insignificant differences were observed in basic physico-chemical profiles in both the drugs at different stages of analysis. The moisture content of KHG was less than KHA which is one of the main parameters that determines the shelf life of a product. Moisture content is the main causative factor in deterioration. Moisture in a product is sufficient to activate different enzymes, which slowly decompose the product resulting in its degradation.[22] Granules have less microbial count, which indicates safety and quality of the product.

Principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to analyze the variations in physico-chemical parameters of both samples. PCA is the most widely used multivariate analysis technique for transforming the original measurement variables into new variables called principal components (PCs). Each PC is a linear combination of the original measurement variables. it is possible to identify key relationships in the data, that is, find similarities and differences among objects in a data. PC1 shows more residual x-variance in Total solid content (TSC). Using principal component analysis (PCA) it is found that all data can be described with PC1 hence discrete variations were not found in samples and the data can be easily explained with a uni-variant model [Graph 1 [Additional file 1]].


  Conclusion Top


Shelf-life of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha is found to be 18 months, while its granules have shelf life of 27 months. This implies that the granules are more stable than the avaleha. This observation may be specific to Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha, as earlier studies with Vāsa avaleha and its granules reported vice versa. Studies involving many more avalehas and their granules are needed to substantiate the observations of the current study.

Acknowledgement

Author would like to acknowledge the authorities at Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda for providing required facilities and financial support to conduct the work. Author also acknowledge Vasu Research Centre, Vadodara for providing technical support.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Sastri P. Sarangadhara Samhita with Commentary. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia Publication; 2002. p. 13.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Acharya YT, editor. Caraka Samhita of Agnivesha, (Siddhi Sthana). Vol. 6/16. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashana; 2011. p. 704.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Saligram GV. Vangasen of Vangasen, (Jwarachikitsa). Ver. 810. Mumbai: Khemraj Shri Krishnadass Publication; 2003. p. 73.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sastri P. Sharangadhara Samhita of Sharangadhara, (Poorvakhanda). 1/51-53. 4th ed. Varanasi: Choukhamba Orientalia; 2005. p. 12.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shastri L, editor. Yoga Ratnakara, (Jwarachikitsa). 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrita Samsthana; 2005. p. 203.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part-I. Vol. 14. New Delhi: Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy; 2001. p. 40.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Paneliya AM, Patgiri B, Galib R, Bedarkar P, Prajapati PK. Pharmaceutical development of granules of Vasa Avaleha. Ann Ayurvedic Med 2013;2:16-21.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Determination of Total Solid Content, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II. 1st ed., Vol. I. Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2007. p. 199.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Moisture %, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 141.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Ash Value, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 140.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 140.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of pH Value, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 191.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Water Soluble Extractives, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 141.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Methanol Soluble Extractives, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 141.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Total Sugar, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 239.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Microbial Contamination, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 163.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Department of AYUSH. Determination of Heavy Metals, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part II (Formulations). 1st ed., Vol. II. New Delhi: Department of AYUSH; 2008. p. 153.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Shastri L, editor. Yoga Ratnakara, Jwarachikitsa 4. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrita Samsthana; 2005. p. 203.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Available from: http://www.kdpma.in/wp-content/themes/twentyten/pdf/drugs-cosmetics-act/33.pdf. [Last accessed on 2015 Nov 22].  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Paneliya AM. Pharmaceutical Standardization of Vasa Avaleha and its Granules with their Effects on Tamaka Swasa (Bronchial asthma) MD Thesis (Doctor of Ayurvedic medicine). IPGT and RA, Jamnagar; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Verma P, Galib R, Patgiri B, Prajapati PK. Shelf-life evaluation of Rasayana Churna: A preliminary study. Ayu J 2014;35:184-86.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Sharma R, Amin H, Shukla VJ, Kartar D, Galib R, Prajapati PK. Quality control evaluation of Guduchi Satva (solid aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers): An herbal formulation. Int J Green Pharm 2013;7:258-63.  Back to cited text no. 22
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]


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