|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 31-36
Experimental evaluation of Hygrophila Schulli seed extracts for antistress activity
Dayanand Kannur1, Srikrishna Nandanwadkar2, Swapnil Dhawane1, Smruti Phulambrikar1, Kishanchandra Khandelwal3
1 Department of Pharmacognosy, SCES's, Indira College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, JSPM'S, Rajarshri Shahu College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||13-Jul-2018|
Department of Pharmacognosy, SCES's, Indira College of Pharmacy, Tahthawade, Pune, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Stress is the causative factor for various diseases and disorders faced by majority of the diseased population. The seeds of Kokilākṣa Hygrophila schulli are attributed with Rasāyana properties as per the Ayurvedic literature. Considering the above, the seed extracts of H. schulli were screened for antistress activity in animals. Aim: To investigate the adaptogenic activity of ethanolic and hexane extracts of Hygrophila schulli seeds using in vivo models. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic and hexane extracts of Hygrophila schulli were subjected to qualitative chemical analysis to detect the presence of various phytoconstituents. The extracts were subjected HPLC analysis. The chromatographic analysis was carried out which revealed the multicomponent and complex nature of the extracts. The seed extracts of H. schulli were screened for antistress activity using Swim Endurance test in mice and Cold-Immobilization Stress model in rats to ascertain the Adaptogenic potential. Results: HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoid Quercetin, the ethanolic and hexane extracts were found to increase the swim endurance time, both extracts lowered the elevated blood glucose, cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels in cold immobilization stress model and maintained normal homeostasis. Conclusion: Hygrophila schulli enhances the physical endurance as well as normalizes the body imbalance due to stressors. The seeds of Hygrophila schulli thus possess adaptogenic property.
Keywords: Adaptogenic, antistress, cold immobilization Hygrophila schulli, swim endurance, stress
|How to cite this article:|
Kannur D, Nandanwadkar S, Dhawane S, Phulambrikar S, Khandelwal K. Experimental evaluation of Hygrophila Schulli seed extracts for antistress activity. Ancient Sci Life 2017;37:31-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Kannur D, Nandanwadkar S, Dhawane S, Phulambrikar S, Khandelwal K. Experimental evaluation of Hygrophila Schulli seed extracts for antistress activity. Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Jan 16];37:31-6. Available from: http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2017/37/1/31/236546
| Introduction|| |
Every individual on this earth experiences stress. Extreme Stress is harmful for the body and hence needs to be treated. Stress leads to the pathogenesis of various diseases and psychiatric disorders such as cognitive dysfunction, psychological depression, anxiety, immune suppression, diabetes, impotence, gastric ulcers, ulcerative colitis, etc.
Adaptogens are naturally occurring antistress natural compounds proven to act against and counter stressful conditions. These substances tend to increase the nonspecific resistance of the individual to various stressors which threaten and disturb the normal internal homeostasis. Adaptogens increase tolerance to change in environmental conditions and resistance to noxious stimuli such as exposure to cold, heat, pain, general stress, infectious organisms. These agents are basically preventive rather than curative in action and have been claimed to arrest ageing process.
Hygrophila, commonly known as the temple plants or hygros, are flowering wild plants belonging to the family Acanthaceae [Figure 1]. They are known as Tālmakhānā, Ikṣura, Ikṣugandha, and Kokilākṣa [Figure 2]. Its seeds are of a shape similar the eyes like the Indian Cuckoo. The plant is commonly found in moist places on the banks of rivers, ditches and paddy fields throughout India.
Ayurvedic literature has references to the use of seeds and roots of Kokilākou. The bitter seeds are known to be aphrodisiac. It is a general tonic and in pregnant women it is used as a sedative. In the treatment of spermatorrhoea and impotency, the seeds are administered with milk and honey. In diarrhoea the seeds paste is administered along with buttermilk.
Kokilāksh is said to be śītavīrya, madhuravipāka and used for the treatment of prameha (~diabetes), atisāra (dysentery)., The complete plant, and its ash have found beneficial use in alternative medicine. Various diseases and disorders such as arthritis, inflammation and pain, jaundice, UT infections have been treated using the plant.,, The plant is known to be aphrodisiac and general tonic due to its healing properties.,
Guṇa (Quality) Guru, Snigdha, Picchila
Rasa (Taste) Madhura
Vipāka (Metabolism) Madhura
Vīrya (Potency) Śīta
Prabhāva (Impact) Śukrajanana
The use and applications of Kokilākṣa have been mentioned in detail and a few are given below 
The properties attributed to Hygrophila are śukraśodhana (purifies/cleanses semen),,santarpaṇa (provides nourishment),,balya (tonic, strength promoter),,vṛṣya (Aphrodisiac),,kāmalāhara (alleviates jaundice),,stanyajanana (galactagogue), āmahara (Eradicates intermediate products of digestion/metabolites),,Śothaghna (Reduces swelling and inflammation).,
The traditional practitioners have been using the Kokilākṣa or Tālmakhānā in various formulations, administered to patients for treating various diseases and disorders.
Vaidyaratnam Kokilākṣakam Kaṣāyam – is an Ayurvedic medicine used in treating jaundice, anemia and hepatic conditions. This medicine is based on Kerala Ayurveda principles. Kokilākṣa Kaṣāyam is administered with an intent to increase elimination of uric acid and other toxins from the body. Secondly, it has anti-inflammatory and detoxifying actions, which helps to reduce inflammation and detoxify the body. The combination of Tālmakhānā, Giloy, and Pippalī cūrṇa reduces āma formation in the body, improves digestion, modulates metabolism, and increases the elimination of āma toxins from the body. It is also available in Kaṣāyam tablet form which is effective in reducing uric acid level, Gout, and Rheumatoid arthritis.
Various ethnobotanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports about Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine were reported. Significant hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity has been reported. The root extracts exhibited significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and antioxidant activities were also reported.Astercantha longifolia is a vājīkarana rasāyana herb and its effect on the sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters have been reported.
The plant contains Sterols,, Terpenoids, Alkaloids, and Flavonoids. Its seeds and roots are a known remedy for arthritis. The seeds are reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. The aerial parts have been shown to possess the Erythropoietic and Hepatoprotective activity.
Kokilāksh is commonly used in various marketed formulations and is the main ingredient in products such as Confido, Lukol, Speman, Tentex Royal, Speman Vet, Vitomanhills, Kokilākshkam Kashaya, Kokilākshkam Kvātha, Kokilāksh – G tablets.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Collection and authentication
Plant material was collected from the local market, and was authenticated from Botanical survey of India, Pune. The specimens were preserved in the repository. Hygrophila schulli (Acanthaceae) (V. No. Kannur 1).
The plant material was size reduced and was further extracted by maceration with 95% Ethanol HSE and Hexane HSH separately and further concentrated using Rota evaporator and dried under vacuum.
The Hexane and Ethanolic extracts of Hygrophila schulli were subjected to qualitative analysis for the various Phytoconstituents such as Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Phytosterols, Saponins, Tannins, Proteins, Amino acids and Flavonoids [Table 1] and [Table 2].
High performance liquid chromatography studies
The extracts (5 mg) were dissolved in of the HPLC grade methanol (5 ml). A part this solution (10 μ L) was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Zorbax ODS C18 4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm reverse phase column attached to Agilent 1100 high performance pump and Agilent 1100 variable wavelength UV detector (254 nm) using optimized solvent systems at a flow rate of 1 ml/min.
The adaptogenic activity was screened using Swim Endurance Model, Cold Stress Model, Cold Stress with Immobilization Model.
Healthy Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150-200 gm and Swiss albino mice weighing 30-40 gm of either sex were used. The experimental animals were maintained under 12:12 h light dark cycle, in an animal house with controlled temperature. The animals had free access to water and Standard pellet diet. The Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approved the experimental protocol.
Swim endurance model
Hygrophila schulli ethanolic and hexane extracts were evaluated using this model at two different doses. Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of six animals each in two sets and were treated with respective extracts and a standard drug for 9 days. On the 10th day the test was performed and the drowning time of the mice was noted and Swim endurance time was calculated.
Immobilization and cold stress model
Hygrophila schulli ethanolic and hexane extracts were evaluated using this model at different doses. The Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups of six animals each and were treated with respective extracts at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w orally one hour prior to stress exposure daily for 10 days by immobilization , in cold conditions. The animals were taken from their home cages and individually placed in polymer containers with partition to separate individual animals. The animals were immobilized by tying forelimbs and hind limbs using a woolen thread, the containers were placed inside a refrigerator such that the temperature to which the animals were exposed was 4°C,, they were returned to their home cages after 4 h. This procedure was repeated for 10 days at a specific time period between 12:00 noon to 4:00 p.m. Geriforte (a multiherbal formulation of Himalaya Drug company) (43mg/kg b.w.) was used as a standard drug. The animals were treated and were subjected to stress for 10 days and were free to have food and water, on the 10th day, one hour after exposure to stress the animals were sacrificed by decapitation, blood was collected from the arterial jugular and serum was separated., The serum was used for the estimation of various biochemical parameters using different biochemical kits (Biolabs/Span Kits).
| Results|| |
High performance liquid chromatography analysis
The HPLC analysis of H. schulli ethanolic extract was carried out using Acetonitrile and water in the ratio 30:70, which exhibited six prominent peaks [Figure 3] which were polar in nature. The hexane extract was analyzed using medium polar system Acetonitrile and water in the ratio 70:30 which exhibited 11 prominent peaks [Figure 4] showing more complex nature of extract. The chromatogram further indicated that it was a mixture of nonpolar and medium polar compounds.
|Figure 3: High performance liquid chromatography Chromatogram of Hygrophila schulli ethanolic extract|
Click here to view
The presence of Quercetin in both the extracts was shown by taking HPLC chromatogram of Quercetin with both extracts in their respective solvent systems.
The Standard Quercetin is observed at Rt. 1.519 min in the H. schulli ethanolic extract [Figure 5]. The Standard Quercetin is observed at Rt. 3.515 in the H. Schulli Hexane extract [Figure 6].
|Figure 5: High performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of Hygrophila schulli ethanolic extract with along Std. Quercetin|
Click here to view
|Figure 6: High performance liquid chromatography Chromatogram of Hygrophila schulli hexane extract along with Std. Quercetin|
Click here to view
Swim endurance time in H. schulli seed extracts
In the case of Hygrophila schulli seed extracts the swimming time was observed to be significantly increased in the extract treated groups in comparison to the vehicle treated animals at both the doses of 250 mg/kg bw and 500 mg/kg bw. The hexane extract exhibited the most significant activity at both the temperatures which was higher than the standard drug [Table 3] and [Figure 7]. The ethanolic as well as the Hexane extracts at higher dose of 500 mg/kg bw were highly significant in increasing the swimming time in mice as well as the physical endurance. Even in case of 10°C temperature the animals were able to sustain the severe cold for a longer period.
|Table 3: Swim endurance time in Hygrophila schulli seed extracts in minutes|
Click here to view
In case of Hygrophila schulli seed extracts, the ethanolic and hexane extracts exhibited moderate adaptogenic activity at 250 mg/kg bw. The Ethanolic and the Hexane extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg bw., lowered the Blood sugar level, Cholesterol, Triglycerides as well as the LDL levels significantly (P < 0.0001) [Table 4] and [Figure 8].
|Table 4: Evaluation of Hygrophila schulli seed extracts in cold and immobilization stress model|
Click here to view
The ethanolic and hexane extract was found to be highly significant in lowering the elevated lipid levels in comparison to the standard drug too. It was also efficient in increasing the HDL levels. The Ethanolic as well as the Hexane extracts exhibited preventive action against stress induced alterations in the TLC and DC [Figure 9] and [Table 5]. The Ethanolic extract was significant in comparison to the Hexane extract in controlling the differential count, thereby maintaining the DC level near to the normal.
|Figure 9:Total Leukocyte Count in Hygrophila schulli extracts treated animals|
Click here to view
|Table 5: Total leukocyte count and differential count of Hygrophila schulli seed extracts in cold and immobilization stress model|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The results clearly exhibit that exposure to cold and immobilization leads to stressful conditions; the normal homeostasis is also disturbed leading to severe imbalance in the biochemical parameters. The severity of stress increases with immobilization along with cold exposure which further leads to clinically pathogenic conditions as observed in the disease control group. Exposure to stress leads to Hyperlipidemia as well as hyperglycemia, which have been reported earlier., The Hygrophila schulli seeds have been used as general tonic in Ayurveda, They have been used as aphrodisiac too indicating the ability to act as rejuvenators., These claims are substantiated in the present study.
The phytochemical and HPLC analysis indicate the seed to be a complex multi component entity. Flavonoids, sterols and Terpenoids were found to be present in the seeds. The presence of Quercetin is also confirmed.
The results evidently indicate the functional ability of the extracts in maintaining the normal homeostasis and controlling the alterations in the biochemical parameters caused by stress induction.,,, It was observed that both the ethanolic as well as hexane extracts were more effective at higher doses. The Hyperlipidemia induced due to stress was significantly lowered. Both the extracts were able to lower the elevated blood glucose level and at the same time lower the elevated levels of Leukocyte count. This can be attributed to the presence of Terpenoids and Sterols in the extracts.
| Conclusion|| |
These results are encouraging enough to ensure the designing of adaptogenic formulations of H. schulli. The current working culture, sedentary lifestyle, pollution, stress levels and working culture are main contributory factors for various diseases and disorders, the results obtained here will help in developing formulations with antistress properties and also properties boosting the vigor and strength. The results obtained herein validate the Ayurvedic as well as folklore claims; the results support the antistress activity of Hygrophila schulli. The balya, santarpaṇa, vṛṣya, āmahara, śothaghna properties are exhibited by the drug.
Thus it can be concluded that the Hygrophila schulli seeds possess antistress properties and have the capacity to enhance the physical endurance, hence the Hygrophila schulli can be used as an adaptogenic agent.
Financial support and sponsorship
The first author is thankful to Director BCUD, Savitribai Phule Pune University for the financial assistance supporting the research work.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Selye H. The evolution of the stress concept. Am Sci 1973;61:692-9.
Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti A. Adaptogenic activity of siotone, a polyherbal formulation of ayurvedic Rasayanas. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:119-28.
Mungatiwar A, Nair A, Kamal K. Adaptogenic activity of aqueous extract of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa
. linn. Indian Drugs 1997;34:184-9.
Paranjpe P. Indian Medicinal Plants- Forgotten Healers. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2005. p. 139, 157.
Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica. Vol. 1. Bombay: Popular Prakashan Private Limited; 1978. p. 667-9.
Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1986. p. 29.
Asolkar LV, Kakkar KK, Chakre OJ. Second Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants with Active Principles. Part 1. New Delhi: NISCAIR, CSIR; 2005. p. 362.
Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Verma BS. Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: NISCAIR, CSIR; 2005. p. 43.
Nadkarni AK. Indian Materia Medica. Vol. 1. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan; 2007. p. 668.
Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ. Database on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. Vol. 4. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha; 2002. p. 320.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. New Delhi: Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR; 1993. p. 351.
Sen KGD. Ratnavali B. edited by Mishra S, Vatarakta Rogadhikara Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, (Reprint ed.). 2013. p. 27/13.
Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK. Indian Medicinal Plants a Compendium of 500 Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. Chennai: Orient Longman Private Limited; 2004. p. 191, 192, 195.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd
ed., Vol. 3, 4. Dehradun: International Book Distributors; 1987. p. 1864, 2330, 2692-4.
Hussain MS, Fareed S, Ali M. Hygrophila auriculata
(K. Schum) heine: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Asian J Tradit Med 2010;5:26-31.
Singh A, Handa SS. Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens
and Hygrophila auriculata
against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;49:119-26.
Shanmugasundaram P, Venkataraman S. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hygrophila auriculata
(K. Schum) heine acanthaceae root extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:124-8.
Chauhan NS, Saraf DK, Dixit VK. Effect of vajikaran rasāyana herbs on pituitary–gonadal axis. Eur J Integr Med 2010;2:89-91.
Haq Q, Nabi M. Studies on oil from seeds of H. spinosa
. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 1978;13:29-32.
Mazumdar U, Sengupta A. Triglyceride composition of H. spinosa
seed oil. Indian J Pharm Sci 1978;40:119-20.
Ali M. Chemical investigation on the seeds of Hygrophila spinosa
. Pak J Sci Ind Res 1967;10:82-3.
Kannur D, Paranjpe M, Dongre P, Kumbhar S, Khandelwal K. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of H. schulli
seed extracts. Int J Green Pharm 2012;6:212-6. [Full text]
Vinod S, Hugar S. Adaptogenic activity of Trigonella foenum graecum (Linn) seeds in rodents exposed to anoxia and immobilization stress. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:1:208-11.
Priyanka S, Vandana K, Dharmendra K, Geetha S, Kshipra M. Adaptogenic activity of Valeriana wallichii
using cold, hypoxia and restraint multiple stress animal model. Biomed Aging Pathol 2012;2:198-205.
Nimbakar S, Patki V, Patki M. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-stress & androgenic activity of polyherbal formulation “A.P -3000” – Containing Panax ginseng
. Indian Drugs 2001;38:27-39.
Kannur DM, Hukkeri VI, Akki KS. Adaptogenic activity of Caesalpinia bonduc
seed extracts in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;108:327-31.
Pripdeevech P, Pitija K, Rujjanawate C, Pojanagaroon S, Kittakoop P, Wongpornchai S. Adaptogenic-active components from Kaempferia parviflora rhizomes. Food Chem 2012;132: 1150-55.
Kannur DM, Khandelwal KR. Pharmacognostical investigation and evaluation of Ficus carica
fruit extract for adaptogenic activity. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:2022-32.
Pripdeevech P, Pitija K, Rujjanawate C, Pojanagaroon S, Kittakoop P, Wongpornchai S. Adaptogenic-active components from Kaempferia parviflora
rhizomes. Food Chem 2012;132: 1150-55.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]