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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2014
Volume 34 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 61-121

Online since Wednesday, March 18, 2015

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EDITORIAL  

Research for understanding as opposed to evaluating Ayurveda p. 61
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153456  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock) p. 64
Saikat Chowdhury, K Nishteswar, Mukesh Kumar Nariya
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153457  
Background: Herbal analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedies are preferred much because of lesser side effects and also a lower tendency for habit formation. Pentatropis capensis is such an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug which is popular among folklore remedies for various injuries and inflammatory problems. It is called by the name of Kākanāsikā in Ayurvedic works. This study was designed to investigate the analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of P. capensis leaves (AEPC) in rats. Materials and Methods: AEPC was assessed for Analgesic effect through radiant heat tail-flick model and anti-inflammatory effect through carrageenan-induced paw edema model on Wistar strain of albino rats. Results: Pentatropis capensis leaves aqueous extract showed significant (P < 0.001) increase in the duration of latency of tail flick response at the dose levels of 450 mg/kg, p.o. as compared to the control group. Similarly, the similar dose level produced significant (P < 0.01) anti-inflammatory effect against acute paw edema after 3 h of carrageenan induction when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
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Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress p. 68
P Anju, Ismail Moothedath, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai Rema Shree
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153459  
Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60 F -254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.
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Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam. p. 73
Ragunathan Muthuswamy, R Senthamarai
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153461  
Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.
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Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants p. 80
Asha Jyoti Bharati, Yogendra Kumar Bansal
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153463  
Background: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English) and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit) is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. Objective: To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Materials and Methods: Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Results: Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. Conclusion: The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.
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Efficacy of garlic extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash in reduction of oral salivary microorganisms, an in vitro study p. 85
HT Ajay Rao, Sham S Bhat, Sundeep Hegde, Vikram Jhamb
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153465  
Objectives: To assess and compare the antimicrobial effect of garlic extract and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash solution against oral salivary microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Thirty six salivary samples were obtained in dry plastic vials. Collected saliva samples were centrifuged. Each vial was mixed completely on a shaker after which 1 ml of saliva was added to 9 ml of ethanol by a sterile pipette and mixed. A volume of 1 ml of garlic hydro-alcoholic extract and 1 ml of mouthwash was added to 1 ml each case specimen and was transferred to culture medium of Trypticase Soy Agar. Agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h to allow for microbial growth. Microbial colonies were counted by independent interpreter to evaluate the result. Statistical Analysis: Data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered statistically significant. Result: Result of the study shows that mean colony count of salivary microbial population was (1984 ± 400) 1127 in saline group (negative control), (50 ± 4) 27 in (0.12%) CHX group (positive control), (700 ± 200) 469 in garlic extract (5%) group (case control). Conclusion: Mouthwash containing garlic extract can be used as an alternative to CHX mouthwash.
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Management of Ano-Rectal disorders by Kṣārasūtra: A clinical report p. 89
Vijaya Kumari Kurapati, K Nishteswar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153467  
Background: Ano-rectal complaints are usually benign in origin. Most of the patients suffering with these disorders do not seek medical advice at an early stage due to embarrassment. It results in advancement of the disease and significant disturbance in the quality of life. Among the available treatment modalities of ano-rectal disorders (ARDs), Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread) appears to be the best in terms of relief and nonrecurrence. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide evidence-based data about the practical application of Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread) in the management of ARDs. Materials and Methods: An ano-rectal operation theatre was established in September 2012, in association with the Government Ayurvedic Speciality Clinic at District Hospital, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, to facilitate the AYUSH services in Allopathic Hospitals. Present report includes the details of ARDs treated by Kṣārasūtra (Medicated thread) method during 2012-2013. A total of 127 ano-rectal cases were operated, which included 44 cases of hemorrhoids, 40 cases of fistula-in-ano, 39 cases of fissure-in-ano and three cases of peri-anal abscess. All the cases were analyzed as per the observations, subjective and objective parameters, and follow-up was carried out for a period of 6 months. Results: In the 127 ARDs treated, 45 patients suffering from hemorrhoids, 36 patients got complete relief, marked relief observed in 4 patients, moderate relief observed in 5 patients. In fistula-in-ano, out of 40 patients 29 patients got complete relief, marked relief was seen in 7 patients out of them 4 patients were referred to anti-tubercular treatment center, 4 patients left against medical advice. In fissure-in-ano-out of 39 patients, 32 patients got complete relief, 5 patients got marked relief, moderate relief observed in 2 patients. These results authenticate the effectiveness of Kṣārasūtra, no adverse effects or recurrence observed in any case. Conclusions: ARDs are efficiently treated by Kṣārasūtra technique with prompt symptomatic resolution and prevention of recurrence and complications.
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Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit p. 96
Swapnil Y Chaudhari, CR Harisha, Ruknuddin Galib, PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153469  
Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.
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Development of a Nasya fitness form for clinical practice p. 100
BS Prasad, Deepa Patil, LG Pardeep, Veerayya Hiremath, CR Shreelakshmi
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153470  
Introduction: Nasya karma is prime treatment modality for ūrdhvajatrugata vikāra. Though classics clearly mention yogya (arha), ayogya (anarha) criteria for Nasya karma some complications were noticed while practicing. In KLEUS Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital Belgaum, out of 2867 patients 58 (0.58%) cases reported various complications during and after Nasya karma in the year of 2011 even after taking utmost care in selection of patients as well as drugs. This gave rise to need to develop quick screening criteria to minimize errors. Objective: To develop Nasya fitness form for clinical practice to further minimize unusual complications and thus obtain the maximum result. Materials and Methods: Literature pertaining to Nasya karma, Nāsa śarīra with anatomy of nose, vasculature, innervation, examination of the nose and various anatomical pathologies were considered to develop the fitness form. Results: On the basis of examination of external nose, nasal cavity, concha, nasopharynx and paranasal sinus by anterior and posterior rhinoscopic examination fitness form was developed. Conclusion: Present fitness format will not only help to assess the nasal pathologies, which are obstacles for drug delivery, but also will help to attain optimum results and avoid unusual complications.
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Top

Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats p. 103
Swapnil Sharma, Vivek Dave, Sarvesh Paliwal, Jaya Dwivedi, Sonika Jain
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153472  
Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC) on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO), and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.
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Nootropic (medhya) effect of Bhāvita Śaṇkhapuṣpī tablets: A clinical appraisal p. 109
Hetal Amin, Rohit Sharma, Hitesh Vyas, Mahesh Vyas, PK Prajapati, Rambabu Dwivedi
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153476  
Background: Nootropic (medhya) potential of śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.) is reported in Ayurvedic literature and modern studies are now validating the same. In spite of plentiful preclinical researches already carried out during the past decades, only meager clinical efforts exploring its nootropic activity have been reported. Present clinical study is an attempt to evaluate the nootropic effect of Śaṅkhapuṣpī tablets. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the nootropic effect of śaṅkhapuṣpī tablets prepared by three Bhāvanā (levigation) of its cūrṇa (powder) with its own Svarasa (fresh juice). Materials and Methods: Thirty volunteers between the age 16 and 25 years participated in this single group pre-post study. Weschler's memory scale was adopted to collect data before (pre) and after (post) intervention period (2 months). Paired t-test was used for analyzing the data. Results: In auditory immediate test and delayed test, 41.03% and 48% improvement was found which statistically highly significant (<0.001). In visual immediate and delayed test 32.5% and 44.87% improvement was found respectively, which shows highly significant result (<0.001). Conclusion: Results reveal that śaṅkhapuṣpī tablet shown highly significant results in improving memory, especially in long term memory loss in younger age group.
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Phytochemical screening and antioxidant, antimitotic, and antiproliferative activities of Trichodesma indicum shoot p. 113
Shweta S Saboo, Ganesh G Tapadiya, Jasvant J Lamale, Somshekhar S Khadabadi
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153480  
Background: Traditionally Trichodesma indicum has been used for its therapeutic effect in folk medicine that include anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer properties. In this work, we validate the anticancer potential of the plant. Aims: To screen the shoot extracts T. indicum for their antimitotic and antiproliferative activities. Materials and Methods: The dried aerial parts of T. indicum were successively extracted with petroleum ether, successive chloroform extract (SCH), successive ethanol extract (SEE) and water. The plant extracts were subjected to study of in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical inhibition systems. The extracts were also tested for their in vitro antimitotic activity in Allium cepa root and antiproliferative activity using the yeast model and five human cell lines (MCF-7, HOP-62, MOLT-4, HCT-15 and PRO). Result and Conclusion: The mitotic index for SCH and SEE was found to be 12.01 ± 1.34 and 12.99 ± 0.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IC 50 value in the antiproliferative assay was found to be 30.14-35.36 mg/mL for SCH and SEE respectively. Both SCH and SEE extracts showed significant antimitotic and antiproliferative activity when compared to the standard methothreaxate, vincreastine and adriamycin. Among the extracts, SEE showed strong inhibition against MCF-7 and MOLT-4 cell lines at concentration <30 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of extracts indicated the presence of β-sitosterol, gallic acid and catechin. Based on these results, it is concluded that T. indicum may be a good candidate for the treatment of a variety of cancer. Thus, its traditional use is validated.
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READERS VIEWPOINT / LETTERS Top

Ayurvedic education p. 119
Dominik Wujastyk
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153481  
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Competency based education in Ayurveda: Need of the hour? p. 119
Shweta Telang-Chaudhari, Gaurang D Baxi, Supriya Bhalerao
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153484  
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Anti-acne activity of Darchini and Tukhm Khashkhash p. 121
Sim Sai Tin, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.153487  
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