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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2016
Volume 36 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 59-113

Online since Monday, March 20, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

The translational framework of ayurveda as a knowledge system p. 59
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_49_17  PMID:28446824
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Vaidyavallabha: An authoritative work on ayurveda therapeutics p. 61
Arhanth Kumar Jain, Shreevathsa Manjunath
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_202_15  PMID:28446825
The text “ Vaidyavallabha” is an authoritative work on Ayurvedic therapeutics written by Hastiruci, a Jain scholar. It belongs to the time period of 1673–1726 CE. Different physical and mental ailments with their treatments are addressed in the 274 verses spanned over eight chapters in this work. In this text many unique, special and simple medicinal preparations for different diseases are given. Many drugs which were easily available in the local area are given much more importance in the treatment. Added to this, method and uniqueness of naming the diseases in the text stand differently when compared to other texts. Even though the text seems to be small, the contribution to the field of Ayurveda practice is priceless.
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A systematic and mechanistic review on the phytopharmacological properties of Alhagi species p. 65
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Marjan Fallah, Milad Moloudizargari, Fatemeh Mehdikhani, Peyman Sepehrnia, Bigard Moradi
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_37_16  PMID:28446826
Alhagi species are well known in Iran (locally known as Khar Shotor) and other parts of Asia as a popular folk medicine. Recent research has shown extensive pharmacological effects of these species. This paper is a comprehensive review of the phytopharmacological effects and traditional uses of Alhagi species and their active constituents with special attention to the responsible mechanisms, effective dosages and routes of administration. The Alhagi species studied in this paper include: A. maurorum, A. camelorum, A. persarum, A. pseudoalhagi, and A. kirgisorum. In order to include all the up to date data, the authors went through several databases including the Web of Science, Embase, etc. The findings were critically reviewed and sorted on the basis of relevance to the topic. Tables have been used to clearly present the ideas and discrepancies were settled through discussion. Alhagi species have significant biomedical properties which can be exploited in clinical use. Proantocyanidin isolated from A. pseudoalhagi has significant biochemical effects on blood factors. Among Alhagi species, A. camelorum and A. maurorum possess the highest anti-microbial activity. Most of the effects observed with A. maurorum are dose-dependent. This paper indicates with emphasis that Alhagi species are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Since DNA damage has been observed following the ingestion of specific concentrations of A. pseudalhagi, care should be taken during administration of the plant for therapeutic use. Further studies are required to confirm the safety and quality of these plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.
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Effects of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables p. 72
L Nivethitha, A Mooventhan, NK Manjunath
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_178_16  PMID:28446827
Cardiovascular functions are controlled by neural factors, temperature, hormones, etc., Of these, neural factors primarily concern the autonomic nervous system, which plays a major role in maintaining and regulating cardiac functions, e.g., blood pressure and heart rate. Prāṇāyāma is one of the most important yogic practices. There are various review articles on Yoga and its effects but, though Prāṇāyāma is a part of yoga, there is lack of review articles. To the best of our knowledge there is no known review article on effect of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. To provide a general overview about the effect of various prāṇāyāma (breathing techniques) on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. A narrative review was performed based on the available scientific literature. An electronic data search was performed in Medline/PubMed database to review relevant articles, using keywords such as “Prāṇāyāma, Yogic breathing techniques, Unilateral nostril breathing, Alternate nostril breathing, Kapalbhati, Bhastrika and Bhramari Pranayama”. All the relevant articles published from 1988 to 06-04-2016 were included in this review. Slow type of yogic breathing technique was reported to produce beneficial effect on cardiovascular and autonomic variables while fast breathing techniques do not produce such effects. There is lack of consistency in the results of specific nostril yogic breathing techniques and the mechanisms behind the effects of various prāṇāyāma. This review suggests that different types of Prāṇāyāma techniques produce different effects and the mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Preliminary pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of Blepharis sindica-T. anders seeds p. 78
Apurva Priyadarshi, Rajesh Kumari, Anil Kumar Sharma, Mohal Lal Jaiswal
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_29_16  PMID:28446828
Background: Blepharis sindica – T. Anders of family Acanthaceae is an important medicinal plant which is mainly used as an invigorating tonic, given to cattle to increase milk production and its roots are used for urinary discharge and dysmenorrhea. It is commonly known as “Bhaṅgāī”. It is extensively used traditionally as Vāīkāraka and Vṛṣya (Aphrodisiac) by vaidyas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The seeds of Blepharis sindica T. Anders are the parts of the plant valued for their medicinal value. Aims: The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the root, stem, seed and seed powder. Materials and Methods: The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physicochemical evaluation using methods given in Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Results: Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were determined to be 21.449 &3177; 2.629%w/w, 0.986%w/w, 18.746%w/w respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts were carried out. Different extracts contain carbohydrate, protein, alkaloids, phenols, saponins and steroids prominently. Calcium, zinc, potassium and iron were also present. These secondary metabolites are the active constituents and may be responsible for B. sindica's pharmacological activities. Chief characters of transverse section of stem include ringed vascular bundles, radial striped pith rays and parenchymal pith. Seed shows presence of scalariform tracheids and lignified walls. Conclusions: The result of the present study can be useful for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.
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Experimental evaluation of Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in behavioral despair using animal models p. 84
Poonam Ashish Gupte, Jayshree Dawane, Asmita Ashish Wele
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_78_16  PMID:28446829
Context: Depression, a sustained mood disorder caused by selective diminution of specialized cells in brain is increasing at an alarming rate. It will be the second largest morbid illness by next decade and is the leading cause of suicidal deaths. The available antidepressant medications benefit only a third of its recipients and have many side effects. Hence, it is imperative to search in Ayurveda for leads. Aim: To evaluate Anti- depressant activity of Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in vivo. Settings and Design: Comparative preclinical study. Materials and Methods: Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta (HG) was prepared using standard operating procedure, physicochemically analyzed and assessed. Tail Suspension Test (TST) model with Swiss albino mice and Forced Swim Test (FST) model with Wistar albino rats were used to assess anti-depressant activity. Imipramine hydrochloride in dose of 15 mg/kg for TST and 10 mg/kg for FST, was the standard drug and Ghee as vehicle control in dose of 0.1g/20g for TST and 0.72g/200g for FST orally. Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in doses of 0.05g/20g (x/2), 0.1g/20g (x) and 0.2 g/20g (2x) for TST and 0.36g/200g (x/2), 0.72g/200g (x) and 1.44g/200g (2x) for FST was administered to 3 test groups for 21 days orally except Plain control group which received only distilled water. Duration of immobility in seconds for TST and number of rotations for FST were noted for assessment. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test and Paired t test. Results: HG was significantly effective at dose of 0.1gm/20gm for TST (P = 0.0037; P < 0.01) and 0.72g/200g for FST (P = 0.0055, P < 0.01) comparable to Imipramine hydrochloride. Conclusions: HG displayed potent anti depressant activity comparable to standard drug Imipramine Hydrochloride.
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Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extracts prevent formation of renal calculi in lithiatic rats p. 90
Mahendra Yadav, Vijay D Gulkari, Manish M Wanjari
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_90_16  PMID:28446830
Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum, commonly known as Pattharcaṭṭa, is used traditionally in ethnomedicinal practices for the treatment of kidney stone and urinary insufficiency. Aim: The present study evaluated the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced renal calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Renal calculi were induced in rats by administration of 0.75% EG in drinking water and co-treated orally with standard drug, Cystone (750 mg/kg), or alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extracts in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days. Weekly body weights were recorded. On day 29, urolithiasis was confirmed by assessing the urinary parameters (urine volume, pH, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, oxalate, magnesium and creatinine clearance), serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium), oxidative stress parameters and histology of kidney. Results: Treatment with extracts attenuated the EG-induced decrease in body weight and elevation in urinary parameters (uric acid, calcium, phosphorus and oxalate) and serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium). Extract treatment also reversed EG-induced decrease in urine volume, pH, magnesium and creatinine clearance, oxidative and histological damages in kidneys. Results were comparable to standard drug, Cystone. Results indicated that EG administration caused renal calculi formation which is prevented by treatment with extracts. The observed antilithiatic effect may be attributed to the presence of high content of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in the extracts. Conclusion: Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves showed preventive effect against renal calculi formation and validates its ethnomedicinal use in urinary disorders. It further supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of urinary calculi.
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Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seeds p. 98
Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya, Daniel Adegbenro, Sunday A Onikanni, Oluwafemi A Ojo, Amos Onasanya
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_142_16  PMID:28446831
Context: The seeds of Telfairia occidentalis have been known to possess different biological properties and are used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia to treat many ailments. The plant is particularly noted traditionally for its healing properties and is usually consumed in the form of herbal decoctions/concoctions as a blood tonic, to treat sudden attacks of convulsions, pain, malaria and anaemia. Aims: In the present study, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies were done on the methanolic extract of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis to evaluate its antioxidant and antinociceptive properties to substantiate its traditional use. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done according to standard procedures. Antioxidant potential was ascertained using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays. Analgesic activity was analyzed using formalin induced paw licking test in albino rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. Statistical Analysis Used: All results extrapolated from the experiments were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using ANOVA (one-way) followed by Dennett's posthoc test. Results: Phytochemicals present in the extract were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroid and anthraquinones. The extract significantly inhibited DPPH scavenging activity with percentage inhibition of 147.3%. The methanolic seed extract of T. occidentalis significantly reduced (P < 0.05) formalin induced paw licking in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin induced paw licking test, with 35.59 and 78.51% inhibition at 400 mg/kg, in albino rats in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The seed extract in this study significantly reduced formalin induced hind paw licking, and could be used as an analgesic for treatment of pain and also showed marked antioxidant potential.
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CASE REPORT Top

Taila Dāha (Cauterization with Oil) an innovative approach in pilonidal sinus p. 104
Rabinarayan Tripathy, Neelima Sherly John, Sreedevi Vijayalekshmi, N J Anuja Nair, Suresh Pasupalan
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_30_16  PMID:28446832
Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory track in mid gluteal cleft usually associated with hairs with an incidence rate of twenty six per one lakh population. It is more prevalently seen in the natal cleft of hairy middle aged obese, males. Such type of non-healing tracts may be considered as Nāḍivraṇa (Sinuses) and can either be treated by the conventional Kṣārasūtra (medicated seton) therapy or contemporary treatment methods. Irrespective of whatsoever management protocol adopted, it inevitably needs long term hospitalisation and is associated with complications. A case of a 28 year old male patient, presenting with pain (within tolerable limits) in the natal cleft and frequent occurrence of a pustule which burst out spontaneously on and off, diagnosed as pilonidal sinus (nāḍi vraṇa) was treated with excision of tract and Tailadāha (thermal cauterization with hot oil) with a combination of yaṣṭimadhu taila and powdered Copper Sulphate (CuSO4). Good haemostasis and uneventful wound healing with a minimally invasive and cost effective treatment was the outcome of study. This study represents an innovative treatment modality in pilonidal sinus.
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Yogaśataka of pandita vararuci p. 110
Dipali Jaimunibhai Shukla, Neeta Chandubhai Patel, Hitesh Vyas
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_208_15  
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