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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2013
Volume 33 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 79-142

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EDITORIAL  

Subjective well-being and health: A potential field for scientific enquiry into the foundational concepts of Ayurveda Highly accessed article p. 79
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139246  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

In vitro cytotoxic activity of menispermaceae plants against HeLa cell line p. 81
B Samuel Thavamani, Molly Mathew, SP Dhanabal
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139040  
Background: Menispermaceae, a family of flowering plants, is a medium-sized family of 70 genera totaling 420 extant species, mostly of climbing plants. It has various medicinal properties, which are used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Plants belonging to this family are rich in alkaloids, especially bisbenzylisoquinoline type. The hypothesis of this study is that the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids present in the selected plants may exhibit in vitro cytotoxic property. Aim: The present study is aimed at estimating the total alkaloidal content of methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus and Cissampelos pareira and evaluating the in vitro cytotoxic activity of both the extracts on the HeLa cell line. Settings and Design: Methanolic extracts of both the plants in the concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 μg/ml were assessed for its cytotoxic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and Methods: Total alkaloidal content was studied for both the plants using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy method. Methanol extracts of both the plants were tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa cell line. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated by MTT assay. Nonlinear regression graph was plotted between % cell inhibition and Log 10 concentration, and IC 50 was determined using GraphPad Prism software. Results: Preliminary phytochemical studies confirm the presence of alkaloids in both the plants. The total alkaloids present in C. hirsutus and C. pareira were found to be 0.252%w/w and 0.1656%w/w respectively. The IC 50 values of C. hirsutus and C. pareria were found to be 111 μg/ml and 129.3 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: From this study, it is observed that C. hirsutus and C. pareira have in vitro cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell line.
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A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children p. 85
SP Suchitra, HR Nagendra
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139042  
Background: Self - rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI). Materials and Methods: The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore. Results: This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI. Conclusions: The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.
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The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim p. 92
Ashok Kumar Panda, Debasis Mandal
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139043  
Background: Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, R.s.abhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011. Results and Conclusion: We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.
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Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarna vanga p. 97
Rohit Ajith Gokarn, Dhiraj Singh Rajput, Pramod Yadav, Galib , Biswajyoti Patgiri, PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139046  
Background: Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in RasaŚāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac). Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties. Design: Pharmaceutical standardization. Materials and Methods: Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, Śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī0 and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated. Results and Conclusion: SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
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Evaluation of implementation status of national policy on Indian systems of medicine and homeopathy 2002: Stakeholders' perspective p. 103
Balpreet Singh, Manoj Kumar, Amarjeet Singh
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139048  
Background: National Policy on Indian systems of medicine and homoeopathy (ISM and H policy) was formulated in 2002 to encourage the development of Ayurveda, Sidhha, Unani, Yoga, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy in India. This study proposes to assess the views of public health experts on current implementation of ISM and H Policy. Methods: An online questionnaire was designed to ascertain the views of public health experts on ISM and H Policy and mailed to 100 public health experts. The tool was tested for content validity and a pilot study was done. Results were analyzed with the help of SPSS version 16. Results and Conclusion: Response rate was 61%. Majority of experts considered implementation status of ISM and H Policy as poor. Lack of quality education was mentioned as major factor responsible for current scenario of ISM and H Policy by most of experts. Lack of funds and government support were emerged as major bottlenecks in implementation of ISM and H Policy.
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In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Xanthium strumarium L. extracts on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus p. 109
Javad Sharifi Rad, Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini Alfatemi, Majid Sharifi Rad, Marcello Iriti
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139050  
Background and Aims: The excessive and repeated use of antibiotics in medicine has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus whose emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has reduced the number of antibiotics available to treat clinical infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves were evaluated on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spp. Materials and Methods: Antiradical and antioxidant activities X. strumarium L. leaf extract were evaluated based on its ability to scavenge the synthetic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and by the paired diene method, respectively, whereas the antimicrobial activity was assayed by the disc diffusion method. Statistical Analysis: Data were subjected to analysis of variance following an entirely random design to determine the least significant difference at P < 0.05 using SPSS v. 11.5. Results and Conclusions: The IC 50 values of the extract were 0.02 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL for the antioxidant and DPPH-scavenging capacity, respectively. X. strumarium extract affected both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, though antibacterial activity was more effective on methicillin-susceptible S. aureus spp. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities exhibited by the methanol extract may justify the traditional use of this plant as a folk remedy worldwide.
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Studies on in vitro interaction of ampicillin and fresh garlic extract against Staphylococcus aureus by checkerboard method p. 114
R Pillai, Niyati A Trivedi, Jagat D Bhatt
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139053  
Objective: Staphylococcus aureus has largely developed resistance to the multiple antimicrobial agents. Garlic (Allium sativum) is claimed to retard development of resistance and produce synergy with conventional antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of combination of ampicillin with fresh garlic extract (FGE) against S. aureus by using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of FGE was studied by well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The effect of combination of ampicillin with FGE was studied by using checkerboard method against the clinical isolates of S. aureus. The organisms were exposed to individual antimicrobial as well the different combinations of the two agents and minimum inhibitory concentration was measured. Results: Synergistic interaction was observed by the combination of FGE with ampicillin for all the strains of S. aureus. Mean minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of ampicillin per se was 24 μg/ml. Addition of 30-60 mg/ml of FGE reduced MIC of ampicillin to <2 μg/ml. Conclusion: This in vitro study indicates synergism between FGE and ampicillin against S. aureus. Evaluation of these combinations in vivo may be warranted.
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Evaluation of a Unani polyherbal formulation (Tiryaqe wabai) as an immunostimulator in elderly persons p. 119
Zar Nigar, Malik Itrat
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139054  
Background and Aims: Elderly subjects have a dysregulation of immune response mainly due to the changes in cell - mediated immunity. Due to their weakened immune response, the elderly are at increased risk of infection and related complications. In Unani medicine Tiryaq wabai was used for the prevention of epidemic diseases during outbreaks, but it has not been explored scientifically so far. The study was aimed to evaluate the immune-stimulating effect of Tiryaq wabai in elderly. Materials and Methods: A randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted at National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital, Bangalore. Thirty immunocompromised elderly persons were selected on the basis of clinical examination considering parameters like history of recurrent infection, unexplained weight loss, persistent diarrhea etc. They were randomly assigned, 20 in test and 10 in the control group. Tiryaq wabai was given to test group 500 mg orally thrice in a week for 45 days. Placebo was given orally to the control group at a dose of 500 mg thrice in a week for 45 days. Response was assessed by total leucocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte percentage, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), CD4 and CD8 count. The results were analyzed statistically using Graph Pad InStat 3. Results: The test drug showed statistically significant increase in TLC (P < 0.001), lymphocyte percentage (P < 0.001), ALC (P < 0.001), CD4 count (P < 0.001) in comparison to control group, but increase in CD8 count was not statistically significant. No major adverse effect was observed throughout the study. Conclusion: The findings outlined above indicate immune- stimulating activity of Tiryaq wabai and supports its use in conditions where immunostimulation is required and thus is suggestive of therapeutic usefulness.
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Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder p. 123
Supriya Bhalerao, Renuka Munshi, Tanuja Nesari, Heenal Shah
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139057  
Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmīghṛtam was evaluated in this condition. Materials and Methods: After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of ADHD as per The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria irrespective of other co-morbid psychiatric illnesses were recruited in the study. Initially a pilot study (n = 10) was carried out to confirm the efficacy of the identified dose of Brāhmīghṛtam. Using this dose, further therapeutic confirmatory study (n = 27) was carried out, wherein Brāhmīghṛtam was compared with methylphenidate. Effect on ADHD symptoms was assessed using the Dupaul ADHD rating scale and this was the main efficacy parameter. Results: In the pilot exploratory study, Brāhmīghṛtam showed 66% decrease in total ADHD score. In the therapeutic confirmatory study, only 16% improvement was seen with Brāhmīghṛtam, which was similar to methylphenidate, standard treatment for ADHD that was used as a comparator in the present study. No side-effects were reported in both studies. Conclusion: Our study thus has adequately demonstrated efficacy and safety of Brāhmīghṛtam in ADHD.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol p. 131
Peyman Mikaili, Sina Mojaverrostami, Milad Moloudizargari, Shahin Aghajanshakeri
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139059  
Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.
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READERS VIEWPOINT / LETTERS Top

Merremia emarginata (Burm. F.) Hall. F.: A substituted market source for Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: An observation from Salem district, Tamil Nadu p. 139
Saravanan Subramanian, M Padmasorna Subramanian
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.139062  
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BOOK REVIEW Top

The Scientific Basis of Integrative Medicine Leonard A. Wisneski, Lucy Anderson p. 141
P Ram Manohar
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