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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2013
Volume 33 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-77

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EDITORIAL  

Consideration of Ayurvedic diagnostics in design of clinical trials p. 1
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134553  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat p. 4
AN Ezejiofor, CN Orish, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134554  
Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.
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Quality parameters, fatty acid profiling and estimation of umbelliferone in grahaṇimihira tailam: An ayurvedic oil preparation p. 10
M Deepak, Prakash U Kumar, B Nitha, Indira Balachandran, AB Rema Shree
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134557  
Background: Grahaṇimihira tailam is an unexplored ayurvedic oil preparation which consists of 34 ingredients. The efficacy of this traditional ayurvedic medicine is undisputable. Proper clinical standardization of this formulation will go a long way in securing greater recognition for it. The main objective of this study was to develop standardization parameters for the formulation in a multidisciplinary way. Materials and Methods: A simple and efficient method for the quantification of umbelliferone by high performance thin layer chromatography was developed and validated. Presence of the major fatty acids and their percentage were assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Various physio-chemical parameters, microbiological load, aflatoxins and mineral oil were also evaluated. Spread plate method was used for checking microbial contamination. Results: The results were validated as per standard protocols. Quantitative estimation revealed the percentage of umbelliferone to be in the range of 0.88-0.98 (w/w). GC-MS analysis of sample led to the identification of 14 fatty acids, in which linoleic acid was obtained as the major fatty acid. Microbes, aflatoxins and mineral oils were found to be absent in the tailam. Conclusion: The results which give the quantitative estimates of various physico-chemical parameters can be adopted to establish new standards for analysis of batch-to-batch variation and this data will facilitate shelf life studies in the future.
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Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem p. 15
Ashish S Zalke, B Duraiswamy, Upendra B Gandagule, Nidhi Singh
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134561  
Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara , kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Results: Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum.
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Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh p. 22
Mohsina Mukti, Mohammed Rahmatullah
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134562  
Context: Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment. Materials and Methods: Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as "evil eye", this refers to their belief in black-magic. Conclusions: This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.
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Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Guḍūcī sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets p. 27
Rohit Sharma, Hetal Amin, Galib , PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134564  
Introduction: Guḍūci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), Dāha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Guḍūci Sattva and its tablets. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 batches of Guḍūci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Guḍūci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out. Results and Conclusion: The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
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The In vitro anti-acne activity of two unani drugs p. 35
Shahid Shah Chaudhary, Mohd Tariq, Roohi Zaman, Shaikh Imtiyaz
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134594  
Background: Acne is the most common disorder treated by dermatologists. As many as 80-90% of all adolescents have some type of acne and 30% of them require medical treatment. It is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit characterized by the formation of open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts. Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro anti-acne activity of two Unani single drugs Darchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.) and Tukhm Khashkhash (Papaver somniferum L. seeds). Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and hydroalcoholic extracts of both drugs were investigated against two acne causing bacteria, i.e., Propionibacterium acne and Staphylococcus epidermidis using well diffusion method. Results: The result showed that both drugs were active against the two bacteria. Against P. acne aqueous and ethanolic extract of Darchini and Tukhm Khashkhash showed the zone of inhibition of 18 ± 1.02 mm and 18 ± 1.6 mm and 13 ± 1.04 mm and 14 ± 1.8 mm, respectively. Against S. epidermidis aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of Darchini showed 22 ± 1.7 mm, 22 ± 1.2 mm and 15 ± 1.8 mm zone of inhibition respectively. Hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of Tukhm Khashkhash showed 15 ± 1.09 mm and 13 ± 1.6 mm zone of inhibition respectively. Conclusion: This suggests that C. zeylanicum and P. somniferum have potential against acne causing bacteria and hence they can be used in topical anti-acne preparations and may address the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria.
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Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke p. 39
Dhirendra B Sanghai, S Vijaya Kumar, KK Srinivasan, HN Aswatharam, CS Shreedhara
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134596  
Background: Malvastrum coromandelianum belongs to the family Malvaceae, commonly known as false mallow. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that it is used to treat various disorders. Pharmacological screening revealed that the plant possess antinoceceptive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial activities. Lack of standardization parameters for herbal raw material is a great hindrance in ensuring the purity of M. coromandelianum. The present work was taken up to with a focus to set standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum. Materials and Methods: The plant was subjected to macroscopic and microscopic studies. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value and extractive value were determined by standard procedures. Different extracts were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated. Plant was subjected for high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis using standard chromatographic procedure. Result: The microscopic characteristics showed the dorsiventral nature of leaf. Two types of trichomes were observed: Covering, unicellular, uniseriate, and bi-cellular head sessile glandular. Vascular bundle was surrounded by spongy parenchyma. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. The phenolic and flavonoid content estimation revealed the presence of appreciable amount of these constituents, while HPTLC analysis showed the presence of β-sitosterol in petroleum ether extract. Conclusion: These findings will be useful for the establishment of standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
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CASE REPORTS Top

An approach to avascular necrosis by Saghṛta kṣīrabasti p. 45
Sreelaksmi Chaganti, Rajashekhar V Sanipeti, Suma S. S Joshi
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134602  
A 62-year-old, male patient radiologically diagnosed as a case of avascular necrosis of femur head with grade 4, presented the following chief complaints. Pain in the left hip joint radiating to thigh (anterior part), of grade '9' on “visual analog scale (VAS)” associated with swelling in bilateral feet and decreased range of movements in the hip joint. This presentation was correlated with Asthi-majjagata vāta (musculo-skeletal disorder) and treated accordingly. Initially, patient had been administered dīpana and pācana followed by nityavirecana (therapeutic purgation). Further Saghrita kīrabasti (medicated enema prepared with milk and ghee) was administered in kalābasti schedule (16 in number). This resulted with relief of pain to grade “3” on “VAS” and complete resolution of pedal edema and improvement in range of movement of hip joint.
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Molluscum contagiosum: A novel Ayurvedic approach p. 49
Shivanand B Kalasannavar, Mahesh P Sawalgimath
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134606  
Three cases of molluscum contagiosum (MC) approached our outpatient Department of Dermatology complaining of umbilicated, skin-colored, firm, painless papules over the neck and face. All of them were immune competent. The medical, social, and family history was insignificant. The lesions were, numerous and recurrent. However, MC in healthy people is a self-limiting disease, but it will take about 18 months to resolve by its own. Hence, the treatment becomes necessary to accelerate the healing process, preventing its spread and for cosmetic reasons. Most of the contemporary treatment methods such as cryotherapy, curettage, and topical application of caustic agents are effective but produce local side-effects such as erythema, tenderness, itching, burning sensation, and pain. The present study reports the efficacy of external application of Pratisaraṇīya Kṇāra (the type of Alkali used for smearing over the affected area) and Bilvādi Agada tablet orally in three cases, which yielded encouraging results.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review p. 52
Dhirajsingh Rajput, BJ Patgiri, R Galib, PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134609  
Introduction: Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha. Aim: The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug. Materials and Methods: Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data. Result and Conclusion: Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
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Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants p. 60
Geetha Suresh, K Haridasan, Kulithala Viswanathan Krishnamurthy
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134613  
Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as R.gveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.
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CLINICAL TRIAL Top

Effect of Grīvā Vasti in management of Grīvā Asthi Sandhi Gata Vāta (Cervical Spondylosis) p. 71
Yogesh Kumar Pandey, Shalini , Ajay Kumar Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.134618  
Introduction: Cervical spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks in the neck. Keeping in view the increasing incidence of this problem in modern society a study was conducted with following. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of Grīvā Vasti in the management of cervical spondylosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 10 clinically, pathologically, and radiologically diagnosed patients of cervical spondylosis, selected from outpatient department/In -patient department wing of P.G. Department of Kāya Chikitsā, N.I.A., Jaipur, satisfying the inclusion criteria. Patients were treated with Grīvā Vasti with Daśamūla Tailam for 35-45 min duration, for 14 days. Assessments were performed with regard to neck disability index before and after treatment. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done with the help of Instat GraphPad 3 using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test. Result: Relief in neck disability index was 65.70%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Result indicates that Grīvā Vasti is an effective treatment in cervical spondylosis.
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Chyawanprash from Vedic to Genomic Era p. 76
RM Sujithra
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