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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2014
Volume 33 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 195-262

Online since Friday, December 19, 2014

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EDITORIAL  

Adequacy of evidence available to support the claims of efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines and treatments Highly accessed article p. 195
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147418  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

The scientific basis of rasa (taste) of a substance as a tool to explore its pharmacological behavior p. 198
Sudipta Kumar Rath, Asit Kumar Panja, Lalit Nagar, Ashashri Shinde
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147419  
Background: A rational and well-developed pharmacological basis forms the foundation of therapeutics in Ayurveda. The principles and theories of Ayurveda need to be validated in the scientific context in order to harness the millennia old knowledge. Rasa (taste) of the substance is the foremost tool in Ayurveda to assess and determine the pharmacological properties and actions of the substance. Similarity in rasa is said to signify similar structure and consequently similar pharmacological behavior. Depending on skills developed over the course of long-term clinical experience one, can register the minute variations in rasa of substances and accordingly the possible variations in pharmacological actions. Thus, rasa can be used as a scientific tool in the drug discovery process to limit and focus the target areas. Aim: To sensitize scientific community to the utility of rasa as a tool in the process of drug discovery. Materials and Methods: All relevant ancient and contemporary literature was reviewed critically to form a scientific basis of the Ayurvedic concept of rasa as a tool to identify the pharmacological behavior of a substance. Conclusion: The review finds that rasa (taste) can be used as a guide to identify potential targets in drug discovery.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of Anbarnesa on fibroblast L929: Can it be used as a mouthwash? p. 203
Hassan Ali Shafiee, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi, Morteza Mina, Jamileh Beigom Taheri, Somayyeh Azimi, Khojasteh Joharchi, Zahra Yadegari, Hamid Reza Rasouli
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147422  
Aims: In Iranian traditional medicine Anbarnesa (derived from smoke from burning female donkey's stool) has been used to treat ulcers and inflammatory conditions like stomatitis and ear infections (otitis). We assess the properties of Anbarnesa as an alternative mouthwash. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Anbarnesa smoke was analyzed using aGC-mass device. The smoke collected was dissolved at different densities in propylene glycol and incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium in direct contact with fibroblast cells. Assessment of cytotoxicity was done at 1, 24 and 72 h. Cell viability was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test, and ELISA Reader machine was used to read the results. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Results: The findings of this study showed Anbarnesa was nontoxic in 1/64, 1/128 and 1/256 dilutions. In 1/32 dilution, toxicity was seen after 72 h. In dilutions, 1/8 and 1/16 toxicity were seen in the 1 st h. Conclusion: According to the initial results of Anbarnesa may be used as an alternative mouthwash with fewer side-effects for plaque control and prevention of periodontal disease.
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Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain p. 208
Swetha Kanyadhara, Sujatha Dodoala, Sunitha Sampathi, Priyanka Punuru, Gopichand Chinta
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147425  
Background: Aloe vera is being used since ages by human kind for treating various ailments including various inflammatory conditions, but scientific validation has not been done for analgesic activity against neuropathic pain. Objective: The current study was designed to systematically evaluate the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of A. vera (EEAV) against sciatic nerve ligation (SCNL) induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Nociceptive threshold of EEAV against thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were performed on 0, 7, 14 and 21 st day post-SCNL. Serum total protein, serum nitrite, in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Sciatic nerve homogenate was used to estimate myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calcium levels. Histopathology of the sciatic nerve was done to confirm the biochemical findings. Results: Treatment with ethanolic extract has increased the threshold for the nociception in thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia models. A significant improvement of in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and decreased LPO levels were observed on treatment with A. vera. Significant decrease in serum nitrite, protein, calcium and MPO levels were observed, indicating protection against damage caused by SCNL. Conclusion: The results of the present study validate the use of EEAV to treat neuropathic pain. This effect may be attributed to the decreased migration of neutrophils and due to the anti-oxidant properties of A. vera. Further studies to confirm the mechanism of action will help develop suitable A. vera formulations for neuropathic pain therapy .
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Protective effect of extracts of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity-an in vivoand in vitrostudy p. 216
SV Suresh Kumar, SH Mishra
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147427  
Aim: Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of ethyl methyl ketone and methanol sub-fractions obtained from methanol fraction of total methanol extract (ME) was carried out both in vivo and in vitro using paracetamol-induced toxicity. Settings and Design: Hepatoprotective activity in vivo was assessed by determining the serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein (TPTN), and albumin in serum. The studies were supported by histopathological examination of liver sections. In vitro activity was assessed by determining the change in hepatocyte viability and other parameters such as GOT, GPT and TPTN. Materials and Methods: The ME of the roots of Baliospermum montanum was prepared and fractionated with chloroform and methanol to get activity guided fraction. The bio-active guided methanol fraction was further fractionated with ethyl methyl ketone and methanol. Both the fractions were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced toxicity. Statistical Analysis: For determining the significant intergroup difference each parameter was analyzed separately, and one-way analysis of variance was carried out and the individual comparisons of the group mean values were done using Dunnet's test. Results: Methanol sub-fraction prevented hepatic damage in vivo, induced by paracetamol, whereas both the sub-fractions showed hepatoprotective effect by restoring altered parameters in the selected in vitro model. The results were comparable with the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. Conclusions: This study underlines the therapeutic potential of B. montanum as per claims in Ayurveda in liver disorders.
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Amelioration of oxidative stress by Tabernamontana divaricataon alloxan-induced diabetic rats p. 222
SK Kanthlal, B Anil Kumar, Jipnomon Joseph, R Aravind, P Royal Frank
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147429  
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Tabernamontana divaricata (L.) and its ameliorative effect on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (140 mg/kg body weight). Methanol extract of T. divaricata was administered at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in diabetic induced rats including glibenclamide (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. In the continuous 21 days treatment, fasting blood glucose level was determined on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. On day 21, serum lipid profiles and glycosylated hemoglobin, liver antioxidant enzymes levels were estimated. Results: Experimental findings showed a significant anti-diabetic potential of the extract in terms of reduction in blood glucose levels and a correct effect on the altered biochemical parameters. Observed data were found statistically significant in correction of antioxidant enzyme level accompanied with diabetes, particularly at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the T. divaricata is found to be effective in type 2 diabetes in rats and to have an ameliorative effect on the associated oxidative stress.
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Yoga: As an adjunct therapy to trim down the Ayurvedic drug requirement in non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Highly accessed article p. 229
Rohit Sharma, Hetal Amin, PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147430  
Introduction: In spite of a large number of drugs showing anti-hyperglycemic activities, none of them have been successful in complete management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Yoga and Ayurveda are the two schools of thought in India, which have a history of curing diseases since thousands of years. Yogic techniques and Ayurvedic herbs have proven their anti-diabetic potential without inducing untoward effects. The present study combines Ayurvedic medication with Yoga techniques as a new approach toward healing DM. Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Yoga therapy in the management of non insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM) and to decrease the oral drug dose requirement of guḍŪcī ghana Tablet. Materials and Methods: Thirty known NIDDM patients of both genders, who were on guḍŪcī ghana (solidified aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.) tablets from past 2 months as Ayurvedic remedy for DM were selected. Along with guḍŪcī ghana administration, the subjects were instructed to follow Yogic procedures including Āsanas , prāṇāyāma, and śuddhi kriyās . The study was conducted for 8 weeks, wherein fasting blood sugar (FBS) and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) levels along with relief in sign and symptoms were assessed at every 2 weeks intervals, and according to relief in sign and symptoms, tapering of drug dosage was carried out. The obtained data were analyzed statistically by applying paired t-test. Results and Conclusion: The results obtained were promising as the relief in diabetic symptomatology was highly significant in terms of P value. 80.83% reduction in dose of guḍŪcī ghana tablets and 7.85% and 8.78% fall in FBS and PPBS levels, respectively, after the complete course of treatment. The obtained P value showed highly significant results.
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A clinical trial for evaluation of leech application in the management of Vicarcikā (Eczema) p. 236
KM Pratap Shankar, S Dattatreya Rao, Shaik Nafeez Umar, V Gopalakrishnaiah
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147432  
Background: Skin diseases are among the most common health problems worldwide and are associated with a considerable burden. Eczema is such a skin ailment which cause psychological, social and financial burden on the patient and their families. Management of eczema with antibiotics, antihistamines, steroids etc., are available but even after their use relapses, recurrences and other complications are very common. Aim : The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of leech application in the management of vicarcikā0 (Eczema) with standard clinical parameters viz. Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score, SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Materials and Methods : An open labeled clinical trial study without control group was conducted with 27 patients having the classical symptoms of vicarcikā (Eczema), selected as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from outpatient department and inpatient department sections of Shalya Department, S.V. Ayurvedic Hospital, Tirupati. Minimum four sittings of leech application were carried out with 7 days interval. Pre- and post-treatment evaluation of the patient was done with Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score, SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Statistical Analysis : Analysis of the data was done with Student's paired t-test. Results : The total EASI score showed considerable reduction up to 54.45% (P < 0.01) and the SCORAD Index significantly reduced by 55% (P < 0.01). The life quality of the patient calculated by DLQI improved significantly by 62.36% (P < 0.01). Conclusion : Leech application gives significant relief for the symptoms of eczema. The life quality of the patient also improved significantly after leech therapy. No adverse reactions were reported during the entire course of study.
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The effect of Macrotyloma uniflorum seed on bile lithogenicity against diet induced cholelithiasis on mice p. 242
Papiya Bigoniya, Sourabh Bais, Brijesh Sirohi
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147433  
Background: The seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. (Family Fabaceae) contain extractable total and tannins with reported hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activity. In this study, dietary M. uniflorum seed, methanolic and acetone extracts (ME and AE) were examined for their bile-antilithogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Mice fed with 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid lithogenic (LG) diet for 8 weeks resulted in cholesterol super saturation in gallbladder bile, which promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones (CGSs). Results: AE reduced the CGS incidence by 60.21%, and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein (LDL) and LDL compared to control animals. Seed extracts at 300 mg/kg dose markedly reduced biliary cholesterol (BC) and decreased bile salt content. The ratio of BC to phospholipid which was 2.64 in the LG diet group was reduced to 1.57-1.35 in the M. uniflorum seed extracts treated groups. Liver cholesterol and TG were decreased significantly by feeding of ME and AE at 300 mg/kg dose. AE significantly reversed the changes in apolipoproteins A-I and C-II level disturbed by LG diet. Conclusions: M. uniflorum seed exerted antilithogenic influence by decreasing the cholesterol hyper-secretion into bile and increasing the bile acid output, thus decreasing the formation of LG bile in mice. The effect was maximum in the AE as it also reduced papillary proliferation of gallbladder and fatty degeneration of the liver. The potential antilithogenic effect of the AE of M. uniflorum may be due to antioxidant property of its rich total polyphenol and tannins content.
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Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz p. 252
Abhishek L Sharma, Meeta A Bhot, Naresh Chandra
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.147434  
Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development.
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BOOK REVIEW Top

The 'Pāka darpan.am': The text on Indian cookery by King Nala p. 259
Naveen Kodlady
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