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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2014
Volume 33 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 143-194

Online since Monday, November 17, 2014

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EDITORIAL  

Ayurvedic education: Where to go from here? Highly accessed article p. 143
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144615  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Standardization of Rajanyādi cūrṇa: An ayurvedic preparation p. 146
Rupali Deshpande, Chandrashekara Shastry Shreedhara, Holavana Hally Nanjundaiah Setty Aswatha Ram
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144617  
Background: Rajanyādi cūrṇa (RC) is an ayurvedic classical preparation used in the treatment of digestive disorders, fever, jaundice, anemia, and asthma. We seek to standardize this drug to ensure its quality. Objective: The current investigation was aimed at the preparation of cūrṇa in three batches so as to standardize it. Materials and Methods: The cūrṇa was prepared in-house in three different batches according to directions given in The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The cūrṇa was evaluated based on organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical parameters. High performance thin layer chromatography was carried out for the quantification of curcumin. Results: The parameters were found to be comparable and sufficient for the evaluation of the cūrṇa. Conclusion: Ayurvedic medicine, RC has been standardized using the various parameters and can be incorporated while developing the pharmacopoeial standards.
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Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India p. 151
Rajesh K Joshi
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144618  
Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.
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Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana p. 157
Prince Kumar Pal, Manmath Kumar Nandi, Narendra Kumar Singh
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144619  
Objective: Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinî0 and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk). Material and Methods: In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process. Results: The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium. Conclusion: The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana . Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters.
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In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh p. 162
Fahad Hussain, Md Ariful Islam, Latifa Bulbul, Md Mizanur Rahman Moghal, Mohammad Salim Hossain
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144620  
Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants' root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.
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Physicochemical standardization, HPTLC profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa: A comparative study of three famous commercial brands p. 165
Mandeep Singh, Navdeep Kaur, Atish Tulsiram Paul
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144621  
Background: Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa is a polyherbal formulation that is available commercially as an over the counter drug. There are three famous brands that are available in the market. However, there are no comparative reports on the physicochemical, chromatographic, and biological profiles of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by these famous companies. Aims: The present study deals with the physicochemical standardization, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa. Materials and Methods: Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by three leading companies were purchased from Jalandhar, Punjab. The physicochemical standardization of the samples was carried out in accordance with the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Authentified Eisenia foetida were procured from Ujjwal Ujala Vermiculture Group, Amritsar. The anthelmintic activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: The data of anthelmintic activity were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean of six earthworms in each group. The statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnet t-test. The difference in values at P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Most of the physicochemical standardization parameters mentioned as per the API were found to be within limit. HPTLC profiling showed the presence of withanolide D in commercial samples. Out of three commercial brands, ASA-DAB was the most active as compared to the ASA-BDN and ASA-AVP at the concentration of 200 mg/ml for anthelmintic activity against E. foetida. ASA-DAB showed the best antioxidant activity in both the in vitro assay at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. Conclusions: The ability of this formulation to scavenge free radicals supports its medical claim of antistress formulation. The anthelmintic potential of this formulation helps us conclude that it can also be considered as a general tonic because it provides relief from helminths.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A combined administration of Aragvādādi kaṣāyam and Syrup Talekt induced skin rashes p. 172
Manjunath Ajanal, BS Prasad
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144622  
It is a common notion among people in India that herbal or Ayurvedic products are safe and do not produce any adverse effect. This is not true since Ayurveda has evaded many adverse effects which occur by combination of herbs. This axiom is potentiated by our report that occurs in the form of skin rashes. A 20-year-old South Indian female of Pittakapha prakṛti (constitution) after beginning therapy with Aragvādādi kaṣāyam (ARK) (poly-herbal formulation) and Syrup Talekt (poly-herbal patent formulation) for the treatment of recurrent incidence of abscess. Rash disappeared after stopping the suspected drug and treatment with Vibhîtakî kaṣāyam (decoction of Terminilia bellarica) and Śatadhauta ghṛtam . Possible and probable (score 6) were the causality according to WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo's Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and grouped under type-B reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of skin rashes which seen after administration of ARK and Syrup Talekt. This report highlights the need of implementation of pharmacovigilance center in the hospital level and additional research in the field of skin toxicity of ARK and Syrup Talekt.
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A unique nonsurgical management of internal hemorrhoids by Jīmūtaka Lepa p. 176
Tajahmed Noorahmed Dongargaon, Shashidhar V Emmi, Amruta A Wali, Yogesh S Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144623  
This is the era of fast foods. Irregularity in food timing, improper diet, and mental stress coupled with a sedentary life disturb the digestive system resulting in increased incidence of hemorrhoids. In the present report, we present two cases of intero-external hemorrhoids. Case 1: A 30-year old young male approached with intero-external hemorrhoid at 11 O'clock position as a primary. Case 2: A 41-year-old female visited with second degree intero-external hemorrhoid at 11 O'clock position. Hemorrhoids present in these patients can be considered as Kaphaja Arṣa. These cases were diagnosed by per rectal digital and proctoscopic examinations by ayurvedic proctologists. In both cases, application of Jîmūtaka Lepa was done under local anesthesia administered using lignocaine 2% with adrenaline. This was followed by manual anal dilatation. Jîmūtaka Lepa was applied to the internal hemorrhoids (Arṣa). Changes were observed in the form of edema, ulcer in 3-4 days and sloughing out of the pile mass up to 5-7 days. Subsequently fibrosis of hemorrhoidal masses started after 7 days. Jîmūtaka Lepa shows a significant effect in obliterating the hemorrhoidal mass within a month of application. The patients were followed-up regularly with proctoscopic examination in each visit and did not reveal any evidence of recurrence of the hemorrhoids.
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Management of rare, low anal anterior fistula exception to Goodsall's rule with Kṣārasūtra p. 182
Pradeep S Shindhe
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144624  
Anal fistula (bhagandara) is a chronic inflammatory condition, a tubular structure opening in the ano-rectal canal at one end and surface of perineum/peri-anal skin on the other end. Typically, fistula has two openings, one internal and other external associated with chronic on/off pus discharge on/off pain, pruritis and sometimes passing of stool from external opening. This affects predominantly male patients due to various etiologies viz., repeated peri-anal infections, Crohn's disease, HIV infection, etc., Complex and atypical variety is encountered in very few patients, which require special treatment for cure. The condition poses difficulty for a surgeon in treating due to issues like patient hesitation, trouble in preparing kṣārasūtra, natural and routine infection with urine, stool etc., and dearth of surgical experts and technique. We would like to report a complex and atypical, single case of anterior, low anal fistula with tract reaching to median raphe of scrotum, which was managed successfully by limited application of kṣārasūtra.
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Top

Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste) of Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br.: A preliminary study in healthy volunteers p. 186
Reshmi Pushpan, K Nishtewsar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144625  
Background: Rasa (a concept corresponding to taste) is the only perceivable parameter for drug identification in Ayurveda. The Ayurvedic pharmacological principles such as guṇa (quality), vîrya (potency) and vipāka (effect of biotransformation) are inferred based on the identified Rasa of a drug. All these principles together predict the probable spectrum of drug action in Ayurveda. It is mandatory to screen a drug in the Ayurvedic pharmacological perspective to incorporate it into Ayurvedic materia medica. Aim: To assess the rasa of a non classical herb, Leonotis nepetifolia (L.).R.Br. based on the lakṣaṇas (characteristics) described in Ayurvedic texts for the identification of individual rasa. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Reaseach in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Materials and Methods: The whole plant powder (3g) of Leonotisnepetifolia was administered to 50 participants (trained Ayurvedic physicians) and their responses after intake of the drug were elicited using a structured questionnaire. Results and Conclusion: On analyzing the data it was found that Leonotis nepetifolia possess predominantly tikta rasa (bitter taste) followed by Kasāya rasa (astringent taste). Recent researches and ethnomedicinal claims on Leonotis nepetifolia stand comparable with the pharmacological activities attributed to tikta and kasāya rasa in Ayurvedic classics Rasa nirdhāraṇa can be one of the preliminary steps to initiate the process of screening of an unknown drug along the lines of Ayurvedic pharmacology specially because rasa is the only perceivable parameter. According to Ayurveda, rasa of a dravya has a bearing on its karma (pharmacological action) and the identification of rasa could be one of the subjective means for inferring pāρcabhautika constitution of a substance which in turn could help in tentatively inferring guṇa, vîrya and vipāka of the dravya. This paper demonstrates how a simple method can be used without any instruments to do a preliminary assessment of the rasa or taste of a plant.
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READERS VIEWPOINT / LETTERS Top

Honey and bee venom in dermatology: A novel possible alternative or complimentary therapy for psoriasis vulgaris p. 192
Engin Senel, Mutlu Kuyucu, Iclal Süslü
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144626  
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Remarks on "Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles" p. 194
Rohit Sharma, Galib , PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.144627  
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