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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2015
Volume 35 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 67-128

Online since Monday, December 14, 2015

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EDITORIAL  

Nobel prize, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Lessons for Ayurveda? Highly accessed article p. 67
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171671  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Therapeutic potential of Polyalthia cerasoides stem bark extracts against oxidative stress and nociception p. 70
BC Goudarshivananavar, V Vigneshwaran, Madhusudana Somegowda, Kattepura K Dharmappa, Siddanakoppalu N Pramod
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171667  
Background: Polyalthia cerasoides is a medicinal plant known for its ethnopharmacological importance. Despite this, investigation related to its therapeutic benefit is still unexplored. Aim: To evaluate the stem bark extracts of Polyalthia cerasoides for pharmacological activities relating to inflammation, nociception and oxidative stress using in vivo and in vitro models. Materials and Methods: Pet ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of the stem bark were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Anti-nociceptive activity in mice was assessed using thermally and chemically induced analgesic models. The free radical quenching potential of the extracts was initially analyzed using the in vitro DPPH photometric assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging and Lipid Peroxidation assays. Then modulatory effect of the extracts on in vivo antioxidant system was evaluated by carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity and subsequent measurements of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase from the liver homogenate. Results: Among the tested fractions, ethyl acetate extract had substantially inhibited the inflammation by 68.5% that was induced by subcutaneous carrageenan injection whereas pet ether and chloroform extract showed only minimal inhibitory effect. Investigation of the anti-nociceptive activity revealed that the ethyl acetate fractions had significantly repressed the algesia in both the analgesic experimental models. In vitro and in vivo individual antioxidant assays demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction has strong free radical quenching potential which also restores the endogenous hepatic enzymes. Conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction enriched with flavinoids and steroids from Polyalthia cerasoides stem bark has potent bioactivity to combat inflammation, ROS and pain. This needs further characterization for potential therapeutic applications.
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Cardioprotective role of methanolic extract of bark of Terminalia arjuna against in-vitro model of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury p. 79
Gauthaman Karunakaran
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171674  
Background: The present study was designed to investigate the cardio protective role of chronic oral administration of methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark in in-vitro myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury and the induction of HSP72. Materials and Methods: Rats, divided into three groups, and were administered with the methanolic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna (TAME) by oral gavage (6.75 and 9.75 mg/kg: 6 days/week for 12 weeks). Control and TAME extract treated rat hearts were subjected to in-vitro global ischemic reperfusion injury (5 min perfusion, 9 min noflow and 12 min reperfusion). Results: Oxidative stress in MIRI was evidenced by, raised levels of myocardial TBARS and depletion of endogenous myocardial antioxidants GSH, SOD and catalase. Western blot analysis showed a single band corresponding to 72 kDa in homogenates of hearts from rat treated with both the doses. In the methanolic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna treatment groups, both the doses had better recovery of myocardial function, with significant reduction in TBARS, and rise in SOD, GSH, catalase were observed. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that the methanolic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna in rat induces myocardial HSP72 and augments myocardial endogenous antioxidants, without causing any cellular injury and offers better cardioprotection against oxidative stress associated with myocardial IR injury.
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Role of quassinoids as potential antimalarial agents: An in silico approach p. 85
Shailima Rampogu
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171676  
Background: Malaria is an infection caused by mosquitoes in human beings which can be dangerous if untreated. A well known plant product, quassinoids are known to have antimalarial activity. These bioactive phytochemicals belong to the triterpene family. Quassinoids are used in the present study to act against malarial dihydrofolate reductase (Pf-DHFR), a potential antimalarial target. Nevertheless, viṣama jvara (~malaria) has been treated with the bark of Cinchona since a long time. Aim: The aim of the present experiment is to perform the protein-ligand docking for Pf- DHFR and Quassinoids and study their binding affinities. Setting and Design: The software used for the present study is the discovery studio (Accelrys 2.1), Protein Data Bank (PDB), and Chemsketch. Materials and Methods: The protein for the present study was imported from protein data bank with the PDB Id, 4dpd and was prepared for docking. The ligands used for the study are the quassinoids. They were drawn using chemsketch and the 3D structures were generated. The docking was done subsequently. Statistical Analysis Used: Molecular modeling technique was used for the protein-ligand docking analysis. Results: The docking results showed that the Quassinoids Model_1 showed the highest dock score of 40.728. Conclusion: The present study proves the promising potential of quassinoids as novel drugs against malaria. The dock results conclude that the quassinoids can be adopted as an alternative drug against malaria.
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Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of Indian medicinal plants in immature rats p. 90
Sandhya K Kamat, Prajakt J Barde, Sanket B Raut
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171669  
Introduction: The objective of the study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of four Indian medicinal plants Saraca indica (Si), Symplocos racemosa (Sr), Cyperus rotundus (Cr), Terminalia arjuna (Ta), a marketed preparation of Si (Aśokārṣṭa) and a combination of Si + Sr using an experimental model of estrogenicity. Materials and Methods: After approval of the institutional animal ethics committee, 22 day old female rats (n = 54) were randomly allocated to 9 groups – Group 1 and Group 2: Vehicle controls, Group 3: Ethinyl estradiol, Group 4: Si (270 mg/kg), Group 5: Sr (270 mg/kg), Group 6: Cr (540 mg/kg), Group 7: Ta (270 mg/kg), Group 8: Ashokarishta (4 ml/kg), Group 9: Si + Sr (135 mg/kg). Variables studied were: Body weight, uterine weight, relative uterine weight, presence of vaginal opening, histomorphology of the uterus and total uterine glycogen content. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: All animals in the ethinyl estradiol group showed a significant change in all the variables. None of the individual test drugs, neither the marketed preparation produced change in any of the variables. The plant drug combination also did not produce a change in any of the variables studied except in histomorphology wherein it caused a slight increase in the height of the luminal epithelium of the uterus (P < 0.05 vs. Group 1). Conclusion: The plant drugs Si, Sr, Cr, Ta and Aśokāriṣṭa did not demonstrate estrogenic activity in the immature rat model. The plant drug combination Si + Sr showed questionable estrogenic activity which needs to be evaluated in further studies.
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Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study p. 96
Nidhi Khemuka, R Galib, BJ Patgiri, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171670  
Background: Savīryatā-avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurvedic dosage forms is described in Śārgadharasahitā. Though the concepts have a strong background, we seek to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms. An attempt has been made in the present study to evaluate shelf-life of Kasaharītakī avaleha and its granules. Materials and Methods: Raw materials were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and utilized after proper authentication in pharmacognosy lab. The avaleha and its granules were prepared in the departmental laboratory following classical guidelines and subjected to accelerated stability studies. Results: Both the products were found to be free from microbial contamination. Heavy metals were within the prescribed limit. Changes in physico-chemical profiles at different intervals are insignificant. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of avaleha was found to be18 months and 27 months to the granules. Conclusion: Stability of granules was found to be comparatively higher than the avaleha. This observation may be exclusive to Kasaharītakī avaleha. Studies on other avalehas and their granules need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation.
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Comparative Anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of Navīna (fresh) and Purāṇa (old) Guggulu p. 101
Kruti Yagneshkumar Vyas, Prashant Bedarkar, R Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171672  
Objective: Guggulu (Commiphora wightii [Arn.] Bhandari) is a well-known anti-hyperlipidaemic drug. Guggulsterones are active components of this drug which are responsible for this effect. The activity of Guggulu may depend upon its nature, fresh samples are recommended for their bṛhmaṇa (body mass increasing) effect; while lekhana (scarificant) effect is attributed to the old one. The comparative Anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of fresh and old samples has not been reported till date. Materials and Methods: Freshly collected and one year old samples of Guggulu were processed in gomūtra. Patients who satisfied inclusion criteria of Hyperlipidaemia were randomly distributed into two groups and the drug was administrated in a dose of 1 g with luke warm water twice a day for eight weeks. Results: Significant improvement was found in the symptoms of Medoroga and Lipid profile with treatment in both the groups. Fresh sample of Guggulu proved to have a better effect in lowering serum cholesterol (5.76%), triglyceride (17.17%), and very low density lipoprotein VLDL (18.36%) levels while old sample of Guggulu provided mild effect in lowering serum triglyceride (13.64%), VLDL (11.07%) and non-significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol (0.94%). Old sample of Guggulu also provided significant decreases in body weight (7.69%) and BMI (7.82%). Conclusions: Old Guggulu showed better effect on body weight, BMI and cardinal symptoms along with significant lipid lowering effect whereas fresh Guggulu showed better result on lipid profile.
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Antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities of standardized Śilājatu (Shilajit) in experimental animals p. 110
Sharanbasappa Durg, Veeresh P Veerapur, BS Thippeswamy, Syed Mansoor Ahamed
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171675  
Background: Śilājatu (Shilajit; SJ) is claimed in traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as antistress. Aim: To investigate whether SJ possesses antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities in rodents. Materials and Methods: Isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), apomorphine, phenytoin, diazepam, haloperidol and other chemicals of analytical grade were procured from standard companies. The antiepileptic activity of SJ was assessed using maximal electro shock (MES)-induced seizures in rats, INH and PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The antipsychotic effect of SJ was evaluated using apomorphine-induced climbing and stereotyped behaviours respectively, in mice and rats. Settings and Designs: SJ (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was given orally once daily for 15 days in all the rodent models. On the test day, SJ was administered 1 h prior to electric shock or chemical inducers (INH/PTZ/apomorphine) in experimental animals; the animals were then observed for different phases of seizures and psychotic behaviours. In addition, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in the brain of rats and mice was estimated in seizure models. Statistical Analysis: The data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Statistical comparisons were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test using Graph Pad Prism version 5.0, USA. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results and Conclusions: SJ pretreatment significantly inhibited the seizures induced by MES, INH and PTZ in a dose dependent manner. Further, SJ augmented brain GABA levels to normal, decreased by INH and PTZ in mice brain. SJ pretreatment also significantly inhibited the climbing and stereotyped behaviours induced by apomorphine. The present data seems to confirm the antiepileptic activity of SJ which may be because of enhancing the GABAergic system. The antipsychotic activity observed may be due to anti-dopaminergic and/or GABA-mimetic actions.
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CASE REPORT Top

Wound healing potential of Pañcavalkala formulations in a postfistulectomy wound p. 118
Rakesh Kumar Meena, Tukaram Dudhamal, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vyasadeva Mahanta
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171673  
Summary Sushruta mentioned sixty measures for management of wounds. Panchavalkal is the combination of five herbs having properties like Shodhana (cleaning) and Ropana (healing) of wounds. Individual drugs and in combination have Kashaya rasa (astringent) dominant and useful in the management of Vrana (wounds) as well as Shotha (inflammations). A 35 years old male patient consulted in Shalya OPD with complaints like discharge per anum, induration and intermittent pain at perianal region since last five years. On inspection external opening was observed at anterior portion 1 O' clock position which was four centimeter away from anal verge. That case was diagnosed as Bhagandara (fistula-in-ano) and was treated with partial fistulectomy and application of Guggulu based Ksharasutra in the remaining tract. The big fistulectomy wound was treated with local application of Panchavalkal ointment daily and simultaneous change of Ksharasutra. The wound was assessed daily for pain, swelling, discharge, size, and shape. The wound healed completely within two and half month with normal scar having good tissue strength. This case demonstrated that post fistulectomy wound can be treated with Panchavalkal ointment.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects p. 122
Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171677  
Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed.
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CLINICAL TRIAL Top

Efficacy of local application of an Unani formulation in acne vulgaris p. 124
Shabiya Sultana, Mohd. Zulkifle , Abdul Haseeb Ansari, Shahnawaz
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.171668  
Background and Objectives: Buthūr-i-Labaniyya (Acne vulgaris) is affecting up to 80% of adolescents and many adults at different stages of life. It is one of the commonest skin disorders which appears on cheeks and nose as white eruptions that seems like solidified milk drops. These eruptions are treated by drugs having properties of tajfīf wa taḥlīl (desiccant and resolving), as mentioned by Ibne Sina. Daood Antaki in his book Tazkira Oolulalbab recommends the local application of a paste of Shonīz (nigella sativa), Naushādar (ammonium chloride) and Būra Armani mixed with Sirka (vinegar) for effective treatment of Acne vulgaris. Methods: The study was observational self comparison before and after treatment, conducted in the OPD of the hospital which is part of the National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore. The duration of study was one year. 40 Female patients with combination of comedones, papules, pustules and nodules were recruited for this purpose. The test drug, Shonīz, Būra Armani, Naushadar powder, mixed with sirka were applied locally for one month with taqlīl-i-ghidhā tadābīr (low calorie index diet). All subjects were assessed on the basis of changes in subjective and objective parameters. Results: The response of test drugs was statistically highly significant (P < 0.01) by using ANOVA repeated measure test, there was also relief in subjective parameters. Subjects reported a reduction of 82.6%, 80.9%, 66.6% in tenderness, itching and irritation respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study reveals that the test drug formulation is safe and effective in treating Acne vulgaris if used along with low calorie index diet. No side effects of drugs were reported, therefore the trial formulation can be recommended to manage Acne vulgaris of mild to severe degree as a therapy.
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