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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2015
Volume 35 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-65

Online since Friday, September 18, 2015

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God does not play dice: Looking back from modern laboratories to the Himalayan valleys p. 1
P Ram Manohar
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Premna integrifolia L.: A review of its biodiversity, traditional uses and phytochemistry Highly accessed article p. 4
Prashant Y Mali
Premna integrifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important woody, medicinal plant and has been prominent place in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani system of medicines. Objective of the present review is to avail the comprehensive information on ecological biodiversity, traditional uses and phytochemistry of P. integrifolia. Information of the plant was searched using various electronic databases in reference to the terms Premna integrifolia, ecological biodiversity, traditional uses and phytoconstituents of P. integrifolia along with Ayurvedic books, Indian classical texts, pharmacopoeias, journals, etc. There is an inherent difference within the three Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFIs) published with regard to the botanical sources of Agnimanthā. Complete data of the plant has been collected manually since from the years 1947–2015 and was arranged accordingly. Available data have reports that roots of P. integrifolia are widely used for the preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like Daśamūlakvātha, Ariṣṭa, Cūrṇa and Chayawanprashavleh for the treatment of a variety of afflictions. It has also reported to have p-methoxy cinnamic acid, linalool, linoleic acid, β-sitosterol and flavone luteolin, iridoid glycoside, premnine, ganiarine and ganikarine, premnazole, aphelandrine, pentacyclic terpene betulin, caryophellen, premnenol, premna spirodiene, clerodendrin-A, etc., phytoconstituents in its various parts. There is need to validate its traditional uses, isolation and confirmation of reported phytoconstituents, biological and clinical efficacy by modern analytical and biological techniques which could be recommendation for further scientific research.
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Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes p. 12
Vijay Pratap Singh, Bidita Khandelwal, Namgyal T Sherpa
Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to diffi culty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti stress mechanism. It reduces perceived stress and HPA axis activation thereby improving overall metabolic and psychological profiles, increasing insulin sensitivity, and improving glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism. Yoga has positive effects on immune system of diabetics.– Overall, Type II DM is influenced by psycho-neuro-endocrine and immune mechanisms where Yoga has important positive role in combating stressors and improving these systems to regain health.
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Critical review of Ayurvedic Varṇya herbs and their tyrosinase inhibition effect p. 18
Khemchand Sharma, Namrata Joshi, Chinky Goyal
Introduction: The aspiration for light skin (fair complexion) is becoming pronounced in a greater number of people in the present times with natural products being more in demand than their synthetic counterparts. Research in the area of skin-lightening agents is an expanding field with the knowledge being updated regularly. In Ayurveda, varṇya, raktaprasādana, tvacya are few terms specifying skin lightening with respect to its modern counterpart i.e., Tyrosinase inhibition, the most commonly reported method of skin lightening. Aim: The present review is undertaken for screening twenty herbs from Varṇya Mahākaṣāya, Lodhrādi varṇya gaṇa, Elādi varṇa prasādana gaṇa and few varṇya formulations to evaluate their probable modes of action through which the skin lightening is effected as per both Ayurveda and biomedical concepts. Materials and Methods: Critical review of herbs to show varṇya property is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts as well as from multiple articles on the internet to justify their skin lightening property on the basis of data collected. Result and Conclusion: All the twenty herbs reviewed are found to act as varṇya directly (citation as varṇya) or indirectly (alleviation of pitta and rakta) as per Ayurveda and to interfere in melanogenesis pathway through tyrosinase inhibition as per biomedicine. This shows their potential to act as good skin whitening agents. Śuṇṭhi being a part of many varṇya formulations, is the only herb among all reviewed in the present study found to exhibit tyrosinase inhibition without any Ayurvedic citation of varṇya property.
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Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in swiss albino mice p. 26
Arun Gupta, Satyendra Kumar, Rashmi Rajput, Ruchi Srivastava, Rajiv K Rai, J. L. N. Sastry
Context: Traditional medicines have been considered as important resources for postponing fatigue, accelerating elimination of fatigue related metabolites and improving physical ability. Rasāyanās or rejuvenative therapies are mentioned as one of the eight clinical specialties in Ayurveda for attaining longevity, healthy life and regulation of bodily balance. Eventhough more detailed studies are needed to confirm the claims of benefits in the light of evidence based research, Ratnaprash, a herbo-mineral rasāyana formulation, is proposed here to be an antifatigue supplement that is good in promoting strength and stamina. Materials and Methods: In the present study, anti fatigue, strength and stamina enhancing properties of Ratnaprash were examined based on swim endurance capacity and the change in biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino mice. Treatment groups were orally administered Ratnaprash at various test doses (500, 1000, 2000 mg/Kg per day), while the control group received distilled water at similar dose volumes. Effect of therapy was evaluated after 28 days of treatment. Results: At the end of study period, the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the treated groups than in the control group. Plasma lactate levels of treated groups were lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05) while tissue ATP levels were higher. These effects were dose dependent and the strongest effect was seen in groups treated at 1000 mg/Kg. Conclusion: Ratnaprash enhanced the forced swimming capacity of mice and exhibited elevated anti-fatigue activity, reduced blood lactate levels and increased tissue ATP levels in preclinical models in comparison to vehicle control, exhibiting possible role in increasing strength and stamina and contributing anti-fatigue activity.
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"Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in Swiss albino mice": Comments from the editorial board p. 32
Editorial Board
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Classical taxonomy studies of medicinally important Ipomoea leari p. 34
Omji Porwal, Saurabh Gupta, Moola Joghee Nanjan, Amit Singh
Background: Ipomoea leariwhich belongs to the family Convolvulaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the whole plant is used for various disorders such as anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. The current study seeks to standardize the parameters for this herb. Materials and Methods: The identification of the pharmacognostical, morphoanatomical characters of Ipomoea leari(leaf, stem and root) were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analyses. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values were determined by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The plant material was fixed in formalin-5 mL + acetic acid-5 mL + 70% ethyl alcohol-9 mL (FAA) and dehydrated with graded series of tertiary-butyl alcohol. Toluidine blue, a polychromatic stain was used for staining the sections and then whole components were observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Microscopically, leaf consists of prominent midrib and the lamina, both having dorsiventral symmetry. The stomata are actinocytic. The stem consists of an epidermal layer of one cell thickness, wide cortex, vascular cylinder and wide pith. The root measuring 1.6 mm thick was studied. It consists of uniformly thick and continuous periderm, wide cortex and thick vascular cylinder. Qualitative analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopic, phytoconstituent and chromatographic analyses of Ipomoea leari. Various standard methods were adopted to carry out the investigation. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide valuable pharmacognostic information of Ipomoea learifor its identification. Our result's suggest that Ipomoea leariis a promising candidate as an adjuvant therapy in various disorders and preparation of monograph.
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Standardization and quality control parameters for Muktā Bhasma (calcined pearl) p. 42
Namrata Joshi, Khemchand Sharma, Hema Peter, Manoj Kumar Dash
Background: Muktā Bhasma (MB) is a traditional Ayurvedic preparation for cough, breathlessness, and eye disorders and is a powerful cardiac tonic, mood elevator, and known to promote strength, intellect, and semen production. Objectives: The present research work was conducted to generate fingerprint for raw and processed MB for quality assessment and standardization using classical and other techniques. Setting and Design: Three samples of MB were prepared by purification (śodhana) of Muktā (pearl) followed by repeated calcinations (Māraṇa). Resultant product was subjected to organoleptic tests and Ayurvedic tests for quality control such as rekhāpūrṇatā, vāritaratva, and nirdhūmatva. Materials and Methods: For quality control, physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, specific gravity, pH value, and other tests using techniques such as elemental analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Structural study with powder X-ray diffraction, particle size with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out on raw Muktā, Śodhita Muktā, and triplicate batches of MB. Results: The study showed that the raw material Muktā was calcium carbonate in aragonite form, which on repeated calcinations was converted into a more stable calcite form. SEM studies revealed that in raw and purified materials the particles were found scattered and unevenly arranged in the range of 718.7–214.7 nm while in final product, uniformly arranged, stable, rod-shaped, and rounded particles with more agglomerates were observed in the range of 279.2–79.93 nm. EDAX analysis revealed calcium as a major ingredient in MB (average 46.32%) which increased gradually in the stages of processing (raw 34.11%, Śodhita 37.5%). Conclusion: Quality control parameters have been quantified for fingerprinting of MB prepared using a particular method.
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An ayurvedic approach in the management of Guillain-Barre syndrome: A case study p. 52
Amit Nakanekar, Sunanda Bhople, Harshad Gulhane, Suraj Rathod, Jayant Gulhane, Pravin Bonde
Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute, frequently severe and fulminant polyradiculopathy that is autoimmune in nature. Guillain Barre syndrome is a rare disorder that causes immune systems to attack peripheral nervous system (PNS). A 46 year old male patient, presenting with sudden onset, complete paralysis of all four limbs (quadriplegia), unable to walk, stand, sit, difficulty in deglutition (dysphagia) and dysarthia, was having foley’s catheter and Ryle’s Tube brought by relative to Out Door Patient Department (OPD) of Government Ayurvedic Hospital, Nagpur; He was provisionally diagnosed as subacute sensory motor paraplegia. Previously patient admitted and treated in Government Medical College (GMC) Nagpur but did not show any sign of improvement so patient was admitted and treated with Ayurvedic treatment for about 50 days. As per Ayurvedic classics, this condition can be correlated with sarvāṅgagatavātavyādhi (~vāta disorder affecting all parts of the body), which is apatarpaṇa in nature (~diseases with deprived nourishment of body tissue) preceded by jvara (~(H/O fever before onset of GBS). Hence, the principle of treatment is santarpaṇa cikitsā (~nourishing treatment). Santarpaṇa (~nourishing treatment) includes bahyopakramas (~nourishing external treatment modalities), such as abhyaṅga (~oleation therapy) and ṣaṣṭikaśālipiṇḍasveda (~sudation using of hot and processed ṣaṣṭika rice), karmabasti (~medicated enema) śirodhārā (gentle pouring of medicated liquid over forehead) and jvaraghna cikitsā (~treatment of fever) using various Ayurvedic herbomineral compounds. Remarkable results were observed in the form of improvement in the muscle power from zero to five of all four limbs with improvement in speech. There was no difficulty post treatment in deglutition, sitting, standing and walking; and now patient has near to normal movements.
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Common medicinal plants with antiobesity potential: A special emphasis on fenugreek p. 58
Parveen Kumar, Uma Bhandari
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Good ayurvedic therapy practices p. 64
Paritosh Bhatt
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