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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2017
Volume 37 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-115

Online since Thursday, May 16, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Primary healthcare based on the framework of Indian traditional medicine p. 55
Subrahmanya Kumar Kukkupuni
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_59_19  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Plant part substitution in Litsea Chinensis for medicinal use: A comparative phytochemical approach p. 57
Bhavana Srivastava, Vikas Chandra Sharma, SC Verma, R Singh, AD Jadhav
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_168_16  
Background: Medasakha (Litsea chinensis) is a medium sized tree, heartwood of which is extensively used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various diseases. Count of this species is declining in the wild and in future this species may be difficult to obtain for use in Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine. It is exploited mainly for its medicinal heartwood. Hence the use of alternative parts of this plant in place of its heartwood would be beneficial for its survival. Objective: Present study is carried out on L. chinensis to phytochemically evaluate the possibilities of using its small branches as a substitute to its heartwood. Materials and Methods: Physicochemical parameters and preliminary phytochemical screening were carried out using standard methods. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated spectrophotometrically using Folin-ciocalteu and aluminum chloride method, respectively. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with semi-automatic applicator was used for HPTLC profiling. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of heartwood and small braches were developed in suitable mobile phase using standard procedures and visualized in UV 254, 366 nm and in white light after derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent. Results: Phytochemical analysis and HPTLC profile of different extracts of heartwood and small branches showed the presence of almost similar phytochemicals in both the parts of this plant which suggests that small branches may be used in place of heartwood and vice-versa after comparison and confirmation of same for pharmacological activities. Conclusion: This study provides the base for further study to use small branches of L. chinensis as a substitute to its heartwood.
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Impact of Śodhana (Ayurvedic purification process) on thrombolytic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f. Nut p. 63
Dattatray D Sarvade, Kamini B Bhingardive, Mohanlal M Jaiswal
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_117_17  
Aims and Objectives: In vitro evaluation and comparison of thrombolytic activity of raw and purified bhallātaka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f.) nuts by means of % of clot lysis. Materials and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of two aqueous preparations of herbal extracts viz. raw and purified bhallātaka nuts along with Streptokinase as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Results: Among the drugs studied both raw and purified bhallātaka nuts showed significant percentage of clot lysis viz. 59.82% and 66.59% respectively with reference to Streptokinase whose percentage was 87.31%. Clot lysis percentage of purified bhallātaka was highest as compared to raw bhallātaka and was comparable to positive control, i.e. streptokinase. Conclusion: Extremely significant difference (P < 0.0001) between mean clot lysis percentage of tested drug samples was found as compared to positive control streptokinase and negative control distilled water. Both raw and purified bhallātaka nuts showed extremely significant mean clot lysis percentage as compared to negative control distilled water (P < 0.001).
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Long-term administration of Ziziphus jujuba extract attenuates cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats induced by angiotensinii p. 68
Reza Mohebbati, Maryam Rahimi, Kosar Bavarsad, Mohammad Naser Shafei
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_122_17  
Objective: The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) traditionally has been used for the treatment of hypertension in Iran. The mechanism of this effect of ZJ is unknown but may be mediated via an effect on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This study evaluates the effect of hydroalcoholic ZJ extract on acute hypertension induced by angiotensinII (AngII), a main product of RAS. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into six groups; 1) saline, 2) AngII that received (50 ng/kg) intravenously (i. v.), 3) Losartan (Los, 10 mg/kg) +AngII group that received Los (i.v.) before AngII and 4-6) three groups of ZJ (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) that were treated four weeks by gavage and on 28th day of experiment received AngII (i. v.). Cardiovascular responses were recorded by cannulation of the femoral artery and drug injection done via the tail vein. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously by power lab system. Maximal changes (Δ) of SBP,MAP and HR were calculated and compared with those of control and AngII groups. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. Results: In AngII group maximal Δ SBP, ΔMAP significantly increased than in control but ΔHR was not significant. Pretreatment of two lower doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of ZJ significantly attenuate increased ΔSBP and ΔMAP induced by AngII. In contrast pretreatment with a higher dose (400 mg/kg) significantly increased the ΔSBP and ΔMAP compared to AngII group. The ΔHR only in dose 200 mg/kg was significantly lower than AngII group. Conclusion: Consistent with the traditional view, the results indicate that ZJ extract has an antihypertensive effect, and effect of its lower doses partly mediated by an inhibitory effect on RAS.
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Attenuation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanol extract of seeds of Lens culinaris medik p. 74
Adikay Sreedevi, Kaveripakam Saisruthi
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_173_17  
Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential role of ethanol extract of seeds of Lens culinaris in attenuation of Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seeds of Lens culinaris were powdered, defatted and ethanol extract was prepared by hot extraction method. The ethanol extract so prepared was subjected to preliminary phytochemical evaluation and fingerprint analysis using high performance thin layer chromatography. Nephroprotective potential of extract was evaluated at 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. in both curative and prophylactic regimens in male Albino rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced by single intra peritoneal injection of Cisplatin at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. Nephroprotective activity was assessed by determining serum markers, urinary parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in renal tissue. Results: Cisplatin had induced marked acute renal toxicity as manifested by a significant increase in serum marker levels, urinary total protein, lipid peroxidation and decrease in urinary creatinine, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). The administration of extract significantly attenuated the Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remarkably by restoring the biochemical and oxidative stress markers in both curative and prophylactic regimens in a dose dependent manner. Histological and immunohistochemical studies also substantiated the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The findings of the present study provides corroborative scientific evidence for the attenuation of Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by seeds of Lens culinaris and validates the ethno-medicinal use of this seeds as renoprotective agent.
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Anti-inflammatory effect of Śirīṣāvaleha prepared by two liquid media on carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model p. 81
Harmeet Kaur, Galib Ruknuddin, Mukesh Nariya, Biswajyoti Patgiri, Prashant Bedarkar, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_11_18  
Background: Steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have several limitations, due to which people are moving towards use of traditional medicines. Considering this, the current attempt is aimed to evaluate in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of a poly-herbal formulation Śirīṣāvaleha prepared in presence of water and Kanji (sour gruel). Kanji is anticipated to bring extraction of more principles from the raw drugs and may improve therapeutic attributes of the drug. Considering this, Kanji was used as a liquid medium for preparation of Śirīṣāvaleha and was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to Śirīṣāvaleha prepared with water. Materials and Methods: The activity was screened in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected; authenticated and trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for five days. Phenylbutazone was used as standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Results: Results showed the presence of pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in Śirīṣāvaleha prepared with water (SW) followed by Śirīṣāvaleha prepared with Kanji (SK). Conclusion: Study shows that both samples of Śirīṣāvaleha have anti-inflammatory effect.
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Study the efficacy of herbal formulation Niśāmalakī in animal model of polycystic ovarian disease syndrome p. 86
Jayshree S Dawane, Vijaya Pandit, Kapil S Khade, Sonali P Suryawanshi, Asmita Wele, Madhuri Pawar, Supriya Bhalerao
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_51_18  
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder characterized by insulin resistance which in turn leads to elevated levels of androgens, anovulation, amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, obesity and polycystic ovaries. Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of herbal formulations-Nishamalaki and Kanchanar Guggulu in animal model of PCOS. Material and Methods: Six female rats of Group I served as control (No Letrozole, no treatment), Letrozole was given 1mg/kg /day for 28 days to induce PCOS in remaining female wistar rats which were then divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each Group II- PCOS disease control, Group III – Clomiphene citrate, Group IV- Nishamalaki, Group V- Metformin, Group VI- Nishamalaki & Metformin and Group VII- Kanchanar Guggulu. Animals were treated orally according to groups for 56 days. Body weight, food intake, Insulin, blood glucose levels and lipid profile checked before and after treatment. Vaginal smear was done daily to study estrous changes. Results: Along with dyslipidaemia, Rats with PCOS showed increase in body weight and insulin levels. Significant reduction in body weight, lipid profile, Blood sugar and insulin was seen in Nishamalaki treated animals but not in Kanchanar Guggulu group. Kanchanar Guggulu and Nishamalaki regularized the cycles in 1st and 3rd weeks respectively. Conclusion: Nishamalaki effectively corrected all changes in PCOS whereas Kanchanar Guggulu only regularized the estrous cycles.
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Effect of variation in concentration of water and plant part used on physicochemical properties of Yavakṣāra p. 94
Akash Kawasthe, Piyush Krantikumar Gandhi
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_58_18  
Introduction: Kṣāra Kalpanā (Ayurvedic alkali formulation) mainly deals with extraction of alkaline material from herb, animals and minerals. Kṣāra preparation mainly has variation in the concentration of Water used for extraction. Objective: To assess the effect of variation in concentration of water and plant part used on the physicochemical parameters of Yavakṣāra (YK). Materials and Methods: YK was prepared by using whole plant with seeds and without seeds. Further these batches were divided depend upon of 4, 6 and 8 times of concentration of water used for extraction. YK was analyzed by using the XRD, AAS-ICP and FTIR. Results: All samples contain Halite crystals of NaCl and Sylvine crystals of KCl. Halite and Sylvine crystals generally formed due to evaporation which is main step in the preparation of Kṣāra Kalpanā. Crystal size of NaCl and KCl is near to nanoparticles (in the range between 90 to 135 nm). YK contains other elements like Fe, Mg and Ca in small amount with slight variance in quantity in different batches. FTIR shows presence of same functional group (C-H of (Alkyl) amines) in all samples of YK. Absences (Pb, As) or traces (Hg) of heavy metal indicate care taken during harvesting and manufacturing. Conclusion: Slight variation is seen in the elements, their concentration and functional group in different batches of YK. Variation in the concentration of water alters the frequency of filtration and affect the period of sedimentation. A batch prepared with less concentration of water (4 times) and without seeds seems to be cost effective.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

In vitro hepatoprotective activity of a polyherbal formulation on HepG2 cell line p. 99
Bibhuti Nath Bhatt, Amitabha Dey, Satyajyoti Kanjilal, HS Srikanth, Rajarshi Biswas, Pallabi Chakraborty, Deepa Gandhi, Avinash Narwaria, Chandra Kant Katiyar
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_57_18  
Background: In Ayurveda, use of multiple herbs in a single formulation is popular and polyherbal Ayurvedic formulations are widely used as growth promoters, gastrointestinal and hepatic regulators, hepatic tonics and so on. Despite the widespread use, there is a lack of scientific evidence on their efficacy and safety. Aim: This study was undertaken to validate the efficacy by evaluating the hepatoprotective activity of one such polyherbal blend (LIVT) on HepG2 cell line. Materials and Methods: Four doses of test formulation (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml) were tested on D-galactosamine induced HepG2 cell toxicity model. MTT assay was performed to determine the dose range for the hepatoprotective study. Results: The test formulation exhibited significant (P < 0.05) cytoprotective activity with a maximum protection of 37% at dose 62.5 μg/ml, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, silymarin. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the polyherbal blend demonstrated a significant hepatoprotective activity and could be used as an active herbal alternative for the treatment of liver ailments.
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RESEARCH IN PROGRESS Top

Phytochemical screening and high-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprint profile of three species of leucas (Lamiaceae) p. 102
K Geethika, P Sunojkumar
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_63_18  
Background: The members of genus Leucas possess high economic potential. As medicinal herbs these were well known as 'Droṇapuhṣpī' in Ayurveda literature. The present study aims to carry out the phytochemical screening as well as the HPTLC fingerprint profiling of three species of Leucas. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, methanol, ethanol and chloroform extracts of each plant were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening. The total phenols, flavonoids and tannins were quantified in the methanolic extract by standard spectrophotometric methods. HPTLC method for the separation of the active constituents in extracts has been developed and TLC of the methanolic extracts on silica gel pre-coated aluminum plates of Merck by automatic TLC applicator and using solvent system Toluene: ethyl acetate:7:3 was performed. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of different phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds, proteins and amino acids. Among all the three extracts studied, L. ciliata had the highest concentration of phenolics (34.5 ± 0.35), flavonoids (48.25 ± 1.06) and tannins (6.45 ± 0.5). A HPTLC fingerprint scanned at 550 nm for methanol leaf extracts revealed 12 peaks for L. stelligera, 15 peaks for L. eriostoma and 13 peaks for L. ciliata with Rf values in the range of 0.06 to 0.98.
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BOOK REVIEWS Top

Book review: An introduction to ayurveda p. 108
Akhilesh Shukla, Anupama Shukla
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_166_17  
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Kāma kautūhalam - A monograph on aphrodite care p. 111
Arhanth Kumar A Jain, Shreevathsa Manjunath
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_36_18  
Kāma Kautūhalam is an unfamiliar monograph on Aphrodite care authored by Śrī Mehanātha. It encompasses 75 verses spanning four chapters dealing with various aspects of Aphrodite care. Employing lucid Sanskrit versification is the connected advantage of the text. Śrī Śāligrāmaji Vaiśya has written a Hindi commentary named Napuṃsakasanjīvinī. Mehanātha restricts the subject only to understanding and managing strategies for sexual disorders in the monograph. Nowhere in the monograph have sexual acts or related instructions been described. The first chapter introduces the subject. The second narrates aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment principles for sexual ailments and related issues. The third and fourth chapter contains 70 distinct formulations. In this connection an attempt has been made to probe, analyse and familiarize the monograph to the Ayurveda community.
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