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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2017
Volume 37 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-54

Online since Friday, July 13, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

Need to strategize standardization of Indian systems of medicine p. 1
K Subrahmanya Kumar
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_73_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Pharmacognostic evaluation of stem bark and leaves of Anogeissus pendula Edgew p. 3
Deeksha Singh, Manmeet Singh Pannu, Krishnendra Singh Nama, Uttam Singh Baghel, Rakesh Yadav
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_33_17  
Background: Anogeissus pendula Edgew has ethnomedicinal importance in various parts of India. It is used in diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, wound healing, burns, skin diseases and gastric disorder. No attempts have been made regarding pharmacognostic investigation of the plant till date. Aim: The present study aimed to perform the pharmacognostic study of leaf and stem bark of Anogeissus pendula Edgew. Settings and Design: The study was designed in accordance with standard procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies viz. organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical and chromatographic fingerprinting on fresh and dried plant parts along with the hydroalcoholic extracts were conducted. Results and Conclusions: A. pendula has dorsiventral oblanceolate to obovate leaves arranged in opposite pairs while the stem bark has rough appearance and ash to greyish white in colour. Leaves have anomocytic type of stomata. The characteristic microscopic features of leaves were observed to be epidermal cells, palisade and spongy parenchyma, vascular bundles, xylem and phloem cells. Stem bark microscopy revealed the presence of periderm, secondary cortex and secondary phloem. Chromatographic fingerprinting of extracts showed the presence of flavonoids (Rutin and Quercetin) and they were quantified. Rutin was found to be 6.23% w/w in leaves and 9.97% w/w in stem bark extract while Quercetin to be 27.29% w/w and 51.62% respectively. The present study evaluated various pharmacognostic parameters which will help in quality control (standardization) of A. pendula Edgew in crude form, in herbal formulations and also aid in the preparation of an herbal monograph for the species.
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Analysis of ayurvedic clinical trials registered in clinical trials registry of india: retrospective versus prospective registration p. 9
Pravin M Bolshete
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_44_17  
Context: Registration of clinical trials is recommended at or before the first participant enrolment. There is limited data available on the registration of Ayurvedic clinical trials in Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI). Aim: The aim of this analysis was to determine the proportion of retrospectively and prospectively registered Ayurvedic clinical trials in CTRI. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of Ayurvedic clinical trials registered in CTRI. List of trials registered in CTRI was accessed from 2012 to 2016 (n= 4713; last accessed on 21 June 2016) and screened to identify Ayurvedic trials. Other AYUSH trials were excluded from the analysis. Following data was collected - registration type (retrospective/prospective), study site (state), postgraduate thesis (yes/no), type of trial (interventional/observational), and study design. Data was summarized using summary statistics. Results: A total of 507 (10.8%) Ayurvedic trials were included in this analysis. The registration of Ayurvedic clinical trials increased from 9.3% (2012) to 19.9% (2016). Of 507 trials, 373 (73.6%) were registered retrospectively and remaining 134 (26.4%) were registered prospectively. A total of 277 trials were part of postgraduate theses (220 retrospective; 57 prospective) and 229 were not (152 retrospective; 77 prospective); 481 trials were interventional (357 retrospective; 124 prospective); 320 were randomized (236 retrospective; 84 prospective). The 507 trials had 686 sites, highest being in Gujarat (38.3%), followed by Maharashtra (19.2%), and Karnataka (10.1%). Conclusions: Results from this study showed that majority of Ayurvedic clinical trials have been registered retrospectively, however there is increase in prospective registration. More than half of the study sites of CTRI registered trials were located in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka reflecting limited registration in other parts of India.
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In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts from whole plants of three Impatiens species (balsaminaceae) p. 16
Fabián Vinicio Delgado-Rodriguez, Olman Hidalgo, Arlene Loría-Gutiérrez, Nien Tzu Weng-Huang
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_162_17  
Context: Plants of Impatiens genus are recognized source of extracts with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, including I. balsamina(Sanskrit name: Tairini), a plant traditionally used in Asia to treat infections and inflammation. However, there is little information related to activities of whole plant extracts. Aim: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extract from whole plant of I. balsamina, I. hawkeri and I. walleriana. Methods: Whole plant material of each species was macerated with ethanol (80% v/v). Phytochemical screening was applied for detection of different metabolites. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods respectively. In vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, potassium ferricyanide antioxidant reducing power (PFRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC 29737), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC 19615), Streptococcus pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli(ATCC 10536), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) using microdilution assay for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Data obtained were analyzed statistically using ANOVA (one-way) followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson correlation test. Results: I. hawkeri extract showed the highest phenolic content (TPC: 44.04 mg GAE/g; TFC: 55, 02 mg QE/g) and was the most antioxidant extract. I. balsamina extract was the most active against all Gram positive bacteria (MIC: 2.5-10 mg/ml) tested and> over C. albicans (MIC: 10 mg/ml). This extract also showed the widest antimicrobial spectrum. Conclusions: The evaluated Impatiens whole plant extracts are also promising sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
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Marker assay guided standardization of an ayurvedic concentrated polyherbal decoction “CiruvilvāDi KaṣāYam” and its application in industrial quality control p. 24
Hariprasad Purushothaman, Ancily Davis, Migy John, Meerabai Palazhy Kalarikkal, Aswin Bhaskaran, Basil Eldho, Tenson Antony
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_188_17  
Background: To establish a marker guided standardization technique to assess whether the marketed concentrated kaṣāyam (decoction) prepared in large scale is providing the same phytochemical values of a Laboratory Reference Standard (LRS) kaṣāyam prepared classically from raw materials of Pharmacopoeial quality. Objectives: Manufacturing and standardization of LRS 'Ciruvilvādi kaṣāyam', including marker assays and its comparison with four different marketed samples. Materials and Methods: pH, Brix and Total solids of samples were determined and compared. HPTLC profile comparison and quantitative comparison with HPLC were done with Gallic acid and Piperine as standards. Results and Conclusion: Results of Brix and Total solids imply that, the manufacturing process of sample IV was significantly different from other samples and LRS. pH value of sample III showed a significant difference as compared to other samples and LRS, indicating a difference in phytochemical contents. Quantification of Piperine and Gallic acid revealed that sample III has a very low Gallic acid concentration and zero Piperine concentration. Sample IV showed a very high concentration of Gallic acid when compared to other samples and LRS. Sample I, II and IV had piperine content but significantly lower when compared to the LRS. In conclusion, the samples (1-IV) which showed difference with the LRS should be made phytochemically comparable to in-house LRS or Pharmacopoeial standards by adopting the marker assay standardization technique. This method helps to identify and rectify the problems related to raw material, in process and finished product quality control.
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Experimental evaluation of Hygrophila Schulli seed extracts for antistress activity p. 31
Dayanand Kannur, Srikrishna Nandanwadkar, Swapnil Dhawane, Smruti Phulambrikar, Kishanchandra Khandelwal
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_191_17  
Background: Stress is the causative factor for various diseases and disorders faced by majority of the diseased population. The seeds of Kokilākṣa Hygrophila schulli are attributed with Rasāyana properties as per the Ayurvedic literature. Considering the above, the seed extracts of H. schulli were screened for antistress activity in animals. Aim: To investigate the adaptogenic activity of ethanolic and hexane extracts of Hygrophila schulli seeds using in vivo models. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic and hexane extracts of Hygrophila schulli were subjected to qualitative chemical analysis to detect the presence of various phytoconstituents. The extracts were subjected HPLC analysis. The chromatographic analysis was carried out which revealed the multicomponent and complex nature of the extracts. The seed extracts of H. schulli were screened for antistress activity using Swim Endurance test in mice and Cold-Immobilization Stress model in rats to ascertain the Adaptogenic potential. Results: HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoid Quercetin, the ethanolic and hexane extracts were found to increase the swim endurance time, both extracts lowered the elevated blood glucose, cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels in cold immobilization stress model and maintained normal homeostasis. Conclusion: Hygrophila schulli enhances the physical endurance as well as normalizes the body imbalance due to stressors. The seeds of Hygrophila schulli thus possess adaptogenic property.
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New triterpenic compounds from Swertia chirata p. 37
Sakshi Bajaj, Vijender Singh, Mohammed Ali
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_5_18  
Aim: To study the Phytochemical constituents of dried aerial parts of Swertia chirata Linn (family Gentianaceae). Methods: The ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of plant S. chirata was subjected to column chromatography and was eluted with petroleum ether and chloroform of various concentrations to yield compound SC-1, 2 and 3 and their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical methods and spectral techniques such as Ultraviolet (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR), Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13CNMR), and Mass spectrometry (MS). Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were determined as (a) Olean-12-ene-18α H-3-one-9α-ol, (b) Olean-12-ene-18α H-3-one-19β-ol and (c) Olean-12-en-18α H-3-one. Conclusion: Chemical and spectral investigation of extract furnished three novel oleanenone triterpene glycosides from the genus Swertia for the first time.
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CLINICAL TRIAL Top

A randomized double blind controlled study evaluating efficacy & Safety of vatika enriched coconut hair oil on hair health in women with hair fall and dandruff p. 45
MM Kura, Arun Gupta, Ruchi Srivastava, SK Luthra
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_142_17  
Background: Hair loss can be a stressful experience often associated with images of reduced self-worth, more in women than men. Dandruff may be associated with hair loss. Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of Vatika Enriched Coconut Hair Oil (VHO) on hair health in women with hair fall and dandruff. Methods: This was a double-blind, controlled study of 8 week duration conducted at Dermatology outpatient department of J.J. Hospital, Mumbai. Forty four (44) healthy female subjects with at least shoulder length hair and complaints of hair fall and dandruff were randomized equally into 2 groups. Members of one group massaged their scalps with VHO twice a week at night followed by washing the hair in morning with a supplied neutral shampoo. Control group used a marketed brand of coconut oil in a similar manner. Main Outcome Measures: Effect of VHO on hair fall, dandruff and hair health parameters such as shininess, blackness, roughness and tensile strength of hair. Secondary outcome assessed was overall subject safety. Subjects were followed up at days 14, 28, 42 and 56 days. Results: VHO was found safe and effective in controlling hair fall, dandruff and improving the overall condition of hair. VHO was found clinically better than coconut oil in controlling hair fall, dandruff, improving the tensile strength of hair and the shininess, blackness and roughness of hair. Global evaluation of therapeutic response by subjects and physician also showed a better efficacy of VHO than coconut hair oil. None of the subjects exhibited sensitivity to any of the study products and no adverse events were reported during the course of the study. Conclusions: Vatika Enriched Coconut Hair Oil is safe and effective in controlling hair fall and dandruff and improving the overall hair-health.
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Ayurveda: The way we need p. 51
Aanchal Sharma
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_147_17  
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CONFERENCE REPORT Top

“Need for integration of Yoga in healthcare”: Conference held on 3rd International day of Yoga - 2017 at Kolar, India p. 53
Nitin J. Patil, PN Venkatarathnamma, L Sunitha
DOI:10.4103/asl.ASL_163_17  
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