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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2017
Volume 36 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 173-235

Online since Tuesday, November 28, 2017

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Call for perseverance and resources: The vital teeth of key to success in ayurveda research p. 173
Sujith Subash Eranezhath
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219359  PMID:29269966
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Antidiabetic effects of artemisia species: A systematic review p. 175
Nikodimos Eshetu Dabe, Adane Teshome Kefale
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219369  PMID:29269967
Background: Over the last century, human life style and food habits have drastically changed which lead to various chronic diseases. Diabetes mellitus is one such disease which is causing serious problems to human health. Allopathic drugs are not much effective in handling the disease and its complications. Hence focus has been turned towards the traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus. Methods: Experimental studies conducted on species of Artemisia on diabetic animal models and human published since the year 2000 until April, 2017 were reviewed. Each article was critically appraised by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality using the JBIMAStARI tool. Result: A total of 14 studies were included in this review and the blood glucose data obtained from these critically reviewed studies clearly showed that both the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of species of Artemisia produced significant hypoglycemic effects in alloxan, Streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic animals and diabetic humans with different mechanisms of action as compared to standard antidiabetic medications. Discussion and Conclusion: The antidiabetic effect of single or multiple doses of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Artemisia species was due to the active compounds of these plants and they all are effective in lessening the blood glucose level in all of those experimental studies. Despite the presence of known antidiabetic medicines in the pharmaceutical market, therapeutic remedies from these medicinal plants have been utilized with success to treat this disorder and its complications with a relatively less side effects.
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A metallurgical study of Nāga Bhasma p. 182
Dev Nath Singh Gautam
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219362  PMID:29269968
Background: The metal Nāga (Lead) is being used by Indians since ancient times. Its external and internal uses have been described in Caraka, Suśruta and other Ayurvedic Saṃhitā. According to most of the Rasa texts, Nāga Bhasma and its formulations are used in many diseases such as Prameha, Jvara, Gulma, Śukrameha etc. Objectives: In the present study, Nāga Bhasma was prepared by the traditional Puṭa method (TPM) and by the electric muffle furnace Puṭa method (EMFPM) and standardized using Metallographic studies. Doing so helps in the study of the microstructure of Nāga Bhasma and also helps in the identification of the metal particles along with the nature of compound formed during the Māraṇa (Bhasmīkaraṇa) process. Setting and Design: Different samples from initial raw material to final product of Nāga Bhasma were collected during the pharmaceutical process (1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa) from both methods i.e. TPM and EMFPM. Samples from both methods were studied using metallographic examination. Materials and Methods: The processing of the Nāga Bhasma (ṣaṣṭipuṭa) was done according to Ānanda Kanda[9] Samples from the raw material i.e. Aśodhita Nāga (raw Lead) and that processed after 1st, 30th and 60th Puṭa from both methods i.e. traditional Puṭa method (using heat from burning of cow dung cakes) and electric muffle furnace Puṭa method were taken. They were mounted on self hardening acrylic base. After careful polishing to obtain scratch free surface of product, they were used for metallurgical study. Conclusion: This study shows that traditional Puṭa method may be better than electric muffle furnace Puṭa method because of more homogeneous distribution of Lead sulphide in the Nāga Bhasma which is prepared by traditional method.
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Determination of antimicrobial potential of five herbs used in ayurveda practices against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus p. 187
TDCP Gunasekara, NDM Radhika, KK Ragunathan, DPP Gunathilaka, MM Weerasekera, HGSP Hewageegana, LADM Arawwawala, SSN Fernando
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219360  PMID:29269969
Background: Medicinal plants are an important source of novel antimicrobial agents. Ayurvedic treatment involves the use of a variety of medicinal plants that merit investigation. Aims: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn, leaves of Jasminum officinale Linn, stem of Berberis ceylanica C.K. Schneid. and fruit of Garcina zeylanica Roxb. Subjects and Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of dried bark of Pongamia pinnata (Magul karanda), dried stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn (Welmadata), tender leaves of Jasminum officinale Linn (Jasmine) and dried stem of Berberis ceylanica (Dāruharidrā) were prepared according to standard protocols and tested for antimicrobial activity against five clinical isolates and one standard strain each of Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida parapsilosis ( ATCC 22019) and six Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates using the well diffusion method. Experiments were done in triplicates using well diffusion method. The plant extracts which gave a zone of inhibition in the well diffusion assay were further tested for Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC). Results: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Berberis ceylanica and ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia had antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Garcinia zeylanica, and the ethanolic extracts of Jasminum officinale, Rubia cordifolia and Pongamia pinnata had antimicrobial activity against MRSA. Conclusions: Berberis ceylanica and Rubia crodifolia had antimicrobial activity against Candida species while Garcinia zeylanica, Jasminum officinale, Rubia crodifolia and Pongamia pinnata had antimicrobial activity against MRSA.
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Traditional consumption of the fruit pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae) in pregnancy may be serving as an intermittent preventive therapy against malaria infection p. 191
Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme, Frances Kaosiso Okoye, Sandra Chinenye Agu, Angus Nnamdi Oli
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219363  PMID:29269970
Background: The bark of Chrysophyllum albidum is reported to possess antimalarial property. The fruit pulp of C. albidum consumed by pregnant women of south eastern Nigeria may also possess antimalarial activity. The present preliminary study investigated the antimalarial potential of the pulp juice and seed of C. albidum. Methods: Schizonticidal activity was evaluated using the Peter's 4-day suppressive test. The prophylactic and curative antimalarial activities of the extracts were evaluated in Albino mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei. Results: The oral acute toxic dose of the pulp extract is beyond 5000 mg/kg. The seed and pulp possess both suppressive and curative properties. The seed extract suppressed early infection by 72.97% and 97.30%, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The pulp juice recorded 72.97% and 81.08%, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. At 500 mg/kg dose, the level of parasite control on Day 7 was the same (96.10%) for both seed and pulp. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the presence of antimalarial constituents in the chemically uncharacterized samples (fruit pulp and seed) of C. albidum. Its ethnomedicinal use may be valuable in pregnancy where it may possibly serve as an intermittent preventive therapy against malaria.
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Effect of bhrāmarī Prāṇāyāma practice on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents: A randomized control study p. 196
Maheshkumar Kuppusamy, K Dilara, P Ravishankar, A Julius
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219364  PMID:29269971
Context: Prāṇāyāma, the fourth limb of ancient aṣṭāṅga yoga consists of breathing techniques which produce various physiological and psychological effects. Though various types of prāṇāyāma and their effects have been scientifically established, Bhrāmarī prāṇāyāma (Bhr.P) is the one whose effects still remain understated. Aims: The present study was conducted to find the effects of Bhrāmarī prāṇāyāma practice on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Subjects and Methods: 90 healthy adolescents including 32 females and 58 males participated in the study. They were randomly divided into Bhr.P group (n = 45) and Control group (n = 45) by a simple lottery method. Pulmonary function test was done at baseline and at end of 12th week using RMS Helios spirometry. Prāṇāyāma group students were trained to do Bhr.P as 3 to 4 breaths/min for 5 min followed by 2 min rest. This was one cycle and in this way, they were instructed to do five cycles each time for 45 minutes five days in a week. Control group students were not allowed to practice any kind of exercise throughout the study period. Statistical Analysis: Student paired and unpaired T tests were used to analyse the intra group and intergroup differences using R statistical software. Results: A significant (P < 0.05) improvement in all pulmonary function parameters; FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF 25%-75% and PEFR was seen in the Bhr.P group than the control group adolescents. Slow vital capacity (SVC) and Maximum Voluntary Volume (MVV) also showed significant improvement in the prāṇāyāma group. Conclusions: Bhrāmarī Prāṇāyāma practice is effective in improving the pulmonary function among the adolescents which could be utilized for further clinical studies.
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Protective effect of standardized extract of Passiflora incarnata flower in parkinson's and alzheimer's disease p. 200
Suvarna P Ingale, Sanjay B Kasture
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219365  PMID:29269972
Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Flavonoids exert their antioxidant effects by neutralizing all types of oxidizing radicals including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) is an important plant used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various disorders of the CNS and is a rich source of flavonoids. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant, antiparkinsonian, and memory enhancing activity of flavonoid rich n-butanol extract of P. incarnata flowers (BEPIF). Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. The antiparkinsonian activity was evaluated using haloperidol induced catalepsy and tacrine induced vacuous chewing movement and memory enhancing activity was assessed using elevated plus maze and object recognition test. Statistical Analysis: The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance test followed by Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of BEPIF decreased transfer latency on day 2 and 9 significantly in elevated plus maze test and showed a significant increase in discrimination index in the object recognition test which is suggestive of its cognitive improvement action. Pretreatment with BEPIF showed a significant reduction in the haloperidol induced catalepsy and the tacrine induced jaw movements which are suggestive of its antiparkinsonian activity. In DPPH and H2O2scavenging assay, BEPIF exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the butanolic extract of P. incarnata flowers has significant antiparkinsonian and cognition enhancing activity which may be associated with its antioxidant potential. Thus, P. incarnata flowers may be employed in treatment of dementia and parkinsonism.
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Chemical characterization of an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulation - Vasantakusumākara Rasa: A potential tool for quality assurance p. 207
Sarada Ota, Arjun Singh, Narayana Srikanth, Bojja Sreedhar, Galib Ruknuddin, Kartar Singh Dhiman
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219367  PMID:29269973
Background: Herbo-mineral formulations of Ayurveda contain specified metals or minerals as composition, which have their beneficial effects on biological systems. These metals or minerals are transformed into non-toxic forms through meticulous procedures explained in Ayurveda. Though literature is available on quality aspects of such herbo-mineral formulations; contemporary science is raising concerns at regular intervals on such formulations. Thus, it becomes mandate to develop quality profiles of all formulations that contain metals or minerals in their composition. Considering this, it is planned to evaluate analytical profile of Vasantakusumākara Rasa. Objective: To prepare Vasantakusumākara Rasa as per Standard operating Procedures (SoP) mentioned in classical text and to characterize it chemically using modern analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: The drug (Vasantakusumākara Rasa) in three batches was prepared in GMP certified pharmacy. Physico-chemical analysis, Assay of elements and HPTLC were carried out as per API. XRD was conducted using Rigaku Ultima-IV X-ray diffractometer. Results: The analysis shown the presence of Mercury, Tin, Gold, Silver, Iron, Zinc and Calcium etc., and HPTLC revealed presence of organic constituents from plant material. The XRD indicated the presence of cinnabar (mercury sulphide from Rasa Sindhura), cassiterite (tin oxide from Vaṅga Bhasma), massicot (lead oxide from Nāga bhasma) and Magnetite (di-iron oxide from Loha bhasma). Conclusion: The physico chemical analysis reveals that VKR prepared by following classical guidelines is very effective in converting the macro elements into therapeutically effective medicines in micro form. Well prepared herbo-mineral drugs offer many advantages over plant medicines due to their longer shelf life, lesser doses, easy storing facilities, better palatability etc. The inferences and the standards laid down in this study certainly can be utilized as baseline data of standardization and QC.
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Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant like effects of murraya koenigii in experimental models of anxiety and depression p. 215
Snigdha Sharma, Shailendra Handu, Ashok Kumar Dubey, Prashant Sharma, Pramod Mediratta, Qazi Mushtaq Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219368  PMID:29269974
Background: Presence of free radical scavenging activity in Murraya koenigii, commonly known as Curry leaves, has been shown in previous studies. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of various neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety and depression. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Murraya koenigii in animal models of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods: The effect of incremental doses of Murraya koenigii aqueous leaf extract was evaluated on spontaneous motor activity (SMA), open arm incursions in elevated plus maze, and despair behaviour in forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests as compared to control groups in Swiss albino mice. Results: Murraya koenigii 300 mg/kg, p.o. (MK300) and 400 mg/kg, p.o. (MK400) reduced the SMA count from 754 ± 64.9 to 540 ± 29 and 295 ± 34 respectively, which was statistically significant. MK300 and MK400 reduced significantly the open arm count from 29 ± 8.6 to 16 ± 7 and 10 ± 3.9, respectively. On FST, MK400 reduced the duration of immobility from 145.5 ± 29 to 91 ± 17.3, which was statistically significant. On TST, MK produced a dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility; however, it was statistically significant only with MK400. Conclusion: Murraya koenigii aqueous leaf extract reduced the despair behavior in experimental animal models, suggesting an anti-depressant like activity. Murraya koenigii extract also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner suggesting a sedative and/or anxiolytic effect though there wasn't any anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze test.
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Management of recurrent nasal vestibular furunculosis by jalaukāvacaraṇa and palliative treatment p. 220
Amol Sudhakar Kadu, Dhirajsingh Sumersingh Rajput, Sourabh G Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219361  PMID:29269975
Nasal vestibular furunculosis is a common bacterial skin infection among the general population mostly affecting adults and children.It is characterized by acute localized infection of hair follicle in the skin lining of the nasal vestibule caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Immunodeficiency also plays an important role in recurrent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) including Nasal furunculosis. Though, the lesion is small, it is extremely painful and tender. Treatment is mostly conservative which consists of warm compresses, analgesics to relieve pain, topical and systemic antibiotics directed against staphylococcus. With rapidly increasing resistance to antibacterial agents, management of these bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Nāsāruṇaśikhā (Nasal furunculosis). Morphologically, it appears like pīḍikā (Furuncle) which is characterized by Rāgayuktaśotha (inflammation with reddening. Jalaukāvacaraṇa (Leech therapy) is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedures described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. In this case, a leech has been applied at the affected area. After leech treatment, throbbing pain was reduced in its intensity followed by gradual reduction in swelling and reddening in two days.This case suggests the utility of leech application in Nasal vestibular furunculosis.
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A case study on successful ayurvedic management of a rare case of reiter's syndrome p. 225
Vaishali Kuchewar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219370  PMID:29269976
Reiter's syndrome is a clinical syndrome of arthritis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, and mucocutaneous lesions. Skin and mucosal involvement is observed in about 10% of the cases. A 34-year-old male was brought in severe condition. He had red colored foul smelling maculopapular skin lesions all over body, swollen and painful knee and shoulder joints. History revealed that he was suffering from Reiter's syndrome since 2003. He used to get admitted between the months of February and May every year due to aggravation of symptoms. Every time he was treated with systemic antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. He was successfully treated with external application and internal medication with tikta (bitter) and kaṣāya (astringent) drugs. He got significant relief in skin lesions as well as joint pain and his quality of life was markedly improved. This case study demonstrates that Reiter's syndrome can be well managed with Ayurvedic medicines.
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Autoimmune bullous skin disease managed with ayurvedic treatment: A case report p. 229
Rahul K Shingadiya, Rohit Sharma, Prashant Bedarkar, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219371  PMID:29269977
Autoimmune bullous diseases are a group of rare, acquired disorders characterized by overlapping features, resistance to treatment, and potential fatality. They need quick and proper management to avoid fatal complications. Ayurveda is found to provide better relief in some autoimmune disorders. Herein, we report a 40-year-old male of autoimmune bullous skin disorder (Visphoṭaka) who failed to respond to allopathic medicines and was subsequently treated with Ayurvedic medicines and achieved complete remission.
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Knowledge and awareness of pharmacovigilance among ayurveda physicians in Himachal Pradesh p. 234
Rohit Sharma, Jayram Hazra, PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.219366  PMID:29269978
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