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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2014
Volume 34 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-60

Online since Wednesday, February 04, 2015

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EDITORIAL  

Toxicity of Ayurveda medicines and safety concerns: The need to revive the branch of toxicology in Ayurveda Highly accessed article p. 1
P Ram Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150761  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Role of indigenous herbs in the management of Alzheimer's disease p. 3
K Nishteswar, Hemang Joshi, Rahul Dutt Karra
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150763  
Ageing is a natural phenomenon and decline of physiological and structural changes are incurable in advancing years of human life. When such degenerative changes occur in the brain they may lead to dementia and other memory related conditions. The Ayurvedic classics identified the importance of higher faculties dealing with memory and introduced a separate group of drugs namely Medhya Rasayanas. Regular intake of such drugs will help to prevent the onset of degenerative changes in the brain prematurely. Ayurveda can play a useful role in the management of such geriatric conditions. The current review has been done with a view to update documented Ayurvedic therapeutic modalities for certain geriatric conditions suggested by Ayurvedic classics in the management of diseases called Vātavyādhi (nervous system disorders), which also include conditions related to memory functions. Recent studies have started validating the claims recorded in Ayurvedic texts. The pathogenesis and remedies for Vātavyādhi documented in Ayurvedic classics have been reviewed with special emphasis on disorders related to dementia. A review of recent researches on the herbs mentioned in management of vāta disorders including dementia have been done to understand their role in management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are many herbs of ethno-medicinal source studied experimentally for their potential in treatment of AD. A judicious combination of modern research methodology and Ayurvedic principles could go a long way in the management and care of AD which is going to be a heavy burden on the society in the future.
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Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review p. 8
Rahi Jain, Padma Venkatasubramanian
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150768  
Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Phytochemical analysis and a study on the antiestrogenic antifertility effect of leaves of Piper betel in female albino rat p. 16
Sasmita Biswal
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150770  
Objective: To study the effect of graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper betel (PB) Linn (PBL) on the estrous cycle of female albino rats. Materials and Methods: Both the extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at three dose levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and the vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for the different phases of the estrous cycle for a period of 30 days. Result: The estrous cycle was irregular and prolonged in the treated groups indicating anestrus condition, which would result in infertility. Both types of the extract showed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus and estrus with a prolonged diestrus at 1000 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day doses as compared with control. However, no change was seen in the metestrus phase. The rats treated with PB showed a significant (P < 0.05), dose-dependent decrease in the estrus phase, in comparison to the control group, the effect was more with the methanolic extract. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase with decreased number of cornified cells. There was a significant reduction in the number of the estrous cycle, in the PBL treated group. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic PB extract, which was not observed in the control group. However, the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day had no effect either on the estrous cycle or on its different phases. The observed effect of PB leaves could be due to the flavonoids and saponin contents, which also contributes to its antiestrogenic mechanism of action. Conclusion: Both the aqueous and methanolic extract of PBL possesses antifertility effect in female albino rats.
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Antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5: A polyherbal formulation in steptozotocin induced hyperglycemic rats p. 23
Kalavathy Gengiah, Rajeswary Hari, J Anbu
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150773  
Background: The antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5, was studied in steptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic rats. Materials and Methods: The hypoglycemic effect of single dose of Gluconorm-5 (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) made up of five plants namely Camellia sinensis, Punica granatum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Foeniculum vulgare and Trigonella foenum-graecum was studied in normal, glucose loaded normal and diabetes-induced rats. The extent of antihyperlipidemic and liver-protective effect was studied by estimating the lipid profile, and the liver marker enzymes. Histopathological studies of the pancreatic tissue were also carried out with glibenclamide as standard antihyperglycemic agent. Results: Fifteen days of oral feeding of the Gluconorm-5 (300 and 600 mg/kg) to diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, liver weight and marker enzymes as compared to those rats in whom STZ induced toxicity was untreated. The diabetic rats treated with the drug showed expanded islets as compared to the untreated diabetic rats, which showed the shrunken islets. The animals that received 300 mg/kg of Gluconorm-5 showed pronounced antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect in the present study, which was comparable with glibenclamide, a standard drug. Conclusion: Gluconorm-5 exerts potent antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect, which can be used as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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In vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex-1 activity of three standardized medicinal plants from Lamiaceae p. 33
Mehdi Ansari, Fariba Sharififar, Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh, Firoozeh Mehni, Manosur Mirtadzadini, Zahra Iranmanesh, Najmeh Nikpour
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150777  
Background: Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic acid with antioxidant and anti-viral effects. We have studied anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) effect of three medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family which have been standardized on the basis of RA content. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinopoides, and Salvia rhytidea was prepared by maceration method and RA content of the plants was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) of the extracts was determined using neutral red method. Serial dilutions of extracts up to MNTC were examined on Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 effect by plaque assay in comparison to acyclovir as a positive control. Results: Among the tested extracts, T. polium contained the highest percentage of RA (1.8%w/w) and exhibited the least toxicity (MNTC = 1000 μg/ml). The greatest anti-HSV-1 was shown by T. polium and Z. clinopoides extracts which exhibited both time and concentration-dependent plaque inhibition. Conclusion: Considering the low toxicity and significant anti-viral effect of T. polium extract, this plant would prove valuable as an active anti-viral drug.
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Evaluation of anthelmintic activity and in silico PASS assisted prediction of Cordia dichotoma (Forst.) root extract p. 39
Prasad G Jamkhande, Sonal R Barde
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150779  
Background: Worm infection and associated complications are severe problems that afflict a large population worldwide. Failure of synthetic drugs in worm infections because of drug resistance has made alternative drug therapy desirable. Cordia dichotoma (Forst.) is an ethnomedicinal plant which is rich in several secondary metabolites. Traditionally, the plant has been claimed to have high medicinal properties including antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The study begun with an aim to explore plant-based natural anthelmintic agents against Pheretima posthuma, an Indian earthworm. Methanol extract of the drug was obtained by successive soxhlet extraction. The extract was tested for different phytochemicals. Worms were exposed to 10 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml concentrations of extract and standard drug, albendazole. A software-based tool, prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate anthelmintic efficacy of plant metabolites. Result: The phytochemical analysis revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, and phenols. The extract showed dose-dependent effects, affecting worm motility, viability, and mortality. It was also found that the biological activity spectrum of the plant phytoconstituents such as octacosanol, lupeol, caffeic acid, and hentricontanol were >0.5 (probable activity > 0.5). Conclusion: The findings of the present work suggest that the extract of C. dichotoma significantly interferes with motility pattern of P. posthuma. The paralysis and mortality of P. posthuma might be due to the combined effects different phytoconstituents. The extract of C. dichotoma promises natural sources to control worm infection.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity p. 44
Waseem Rizvi, Mohd. Fayazuddin, Syed Shariq, Ompal Singh, Shagufta Moin, Kafil Akhtar, Anil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150780  
Background: Cichorium intybus L. commonly known as chicory is one of the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is commonly used for the treatment of diseases involving a khapa and pitta doshas. Traditionally, C. intybus is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but there are only few in vitro studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory. Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory and mechanisms involved in it using in vivo models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150-200 g were used. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots of chicory were prepared with the help of Soxhlet's apparatus. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1 and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated. Results: Chicory roots demonstrated significant dose-dependent decrease in paw edema in carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Chicory roots diminished the serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 levels. They also significantly attenuated the malonylaldehyde levels and increased the activities of CAT and GPx in paw tissue. Similarly, chicory roots demonstrated a significant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. Conclusion: Chicory roots possess anti-inflammatory activity, and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines, antioxidant effects, and their free radical scavenging activity.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Syringing method as an alternative to Śṛṇga therapy in Vātakaṇṭaka p. 50
Suma Joshi, Sangeeta Hemant Toshikhane, Hemant D Toshikhane
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150782  
Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to "Vātakaṇṭaka" (pricking sensation in the foot)-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga) in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University's Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy), bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS) came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS) and tenderness and swelling relived completely.
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Ayurvedic management of postlumbar myelomeningocele surgery: A case study p. 53
Savita Butali, Annapurna R Patil, MD Aziz Arbar, MD Veena Tonne
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.150783  
A 11-year-old male child presented with the complaints of urinary incontinence, passing hard stools associated with weakness in lower limbs, deformity of feet, reduced sensation below ankle joint since he was 5 years of age as noticed by parents. The clinical features were seen as postlumbar myelomeningocele surgery and child had congenital talipus equinovarus. For this, he was administered anulomana, sarvāṅga abhyaṅga (oleation / massage), saṅgraha cikitsā, avagāha sveda (sudation) and matrā basti (type of oleaginous enema). After the treatment, child was able to get control over his bladder, he started feeling sense the fullness of the bladder, there was a desire to void urine and a reduction in a number of voids in daytime and a reduced degree of wetness
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BOOK REVIEW Top

A review on Cikitsātilaka of Srīnivāsa p. 57
KR Bhavana
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