|Ahead of print publication
Effect of variation in concentration of water and plant part used on physicochemical properties of Yavakṣāra
Akash Kawasthe1, Piyush Krantikumar Gandhi2
1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishjya Kalpana, College of Ayurved and Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishjya Kalpana, Government Ayurved College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India
Piyush Krantikumar Gandhi,
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishjya Kalpana, Government Ayurved College, Nanded . 431 601, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Kṣāra Kalpanā (Ayurvedic alkali formulation) mainly deals with extraction of alkaline material from herb, animals and minerals. Kṣāra preparation mainly has variation in the concentration of Water used for extraction. Objective: To assess the effect of variation in concentration of water and plant part used on the physicochemical parameters of Yavakṣāra (YK). Materials and Methods: YK was prepared by using whole plant with seeds and without seeds. Further these batches were divided depend upon of 4, 6 and 8 times of concentration of water used for extraction. YK was analyzed by using the XRD, AAS-ICP and FTIR. Results: All samples contain Halite crystals of NaCl and Sylvine crystals of KCl. Halite and Sylvine crystals generally formed due to evaporation which is main step in the preparation of Kṣāra Kalpanā. Crystal size of NaCl and KCl is near to nanoparticles (in the range between 90 to 135 nm). YK contains other elements like Fe, Mg and Ca in small amount with slight variance in quantity in different batches. FTIR shows presence of same functional group (C-H of (Alkyl) amines) in all samples of YK. Absences (Pb, As) or traces (Hg) of heavy metal indicate care taken during harvesting and manufacturing. Conclusion: Slight variation is seen in the elements, their concentration and functional group in different batches of YK. Variation in the concentration of water alters the frequency of filtration and affect the period of sedimentation. A batch prepared with less concentration of water (4 times) and without seeds seems to be cost effective.
Keywords: AAS-ICP, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X ray diffraction, Yavakṣāra
| Introduction|| |
Kṣāra Kalpanā (Ayurvedic alkali formulation) is one of the dosage forms mentioned by Suśruta. Kṣāra Kalpanā (white colored residue obtained after evaporation of filtrate of plant ash dissolved in water) mainly contains alkaline material from the different plant, animal and mineral sources. Mild, moderate and strong variants of Kṣāra were explained in details in Ayurveda along with its use as external and internal medicines. Ayurveda elaborates different actions of Kṣāra depending upon the source of material used along with one common property, viz. removal of extra or unwanted muscular parts. Description of Kṣāra closely resembles that of alkaline material. The substance having pH more than 7 are termed as alkaline. All alkaline material have same action whose intensity varies according to the pH. All alkalis mainly contain Na, K, Cl.
Ayurveda narrates different actions of Kṣāra depending upon its source although the process of manufacturing (open pan ignition, maceration with water, sedimentation and evaporation of macerate) is same. There is a need to explore the particle size of elements, crystallography of elements, nature and types of elements found in Kṣāra. Yavakṣāra (YK) is obtained from whole Yava (Hordeum Vulgare Linn.) plant which is used mainly to treat disorders such as śūla (pain), anāha (flatulence), adhmana (general tympanitis), mūtra kṛcchra (difficulty in micturition), kaṇṭha vikāra (diseases of throat) and amlapitta (acid-peptic disorder). Seeds of Yava (Barley) are used as food or substrate for brewing industry. With this as the background, we decided to find the physicochemical difference in YK prepared from whole plant and whole plant without seeds.
Aims and objectives
- To determine nature, types and forms of elements present in Yavakṣāra
- To differentiate between the Yavakṣāra prepared using whole plant with seeds and without seeds
- To differentiate between the Yavakṣāra prepared by varying the concentration of water required in the preparation.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Dried whole plant of Barley was obtained after three months of sowing of 25 kg of authenticated seeds in half acre land. Dried whole plant of Barley was divided into two parts i.e. with seed and without seeds. Each 800 kg of whole dried plants with seed and without seed were burned at 350 °C to get 92 and 80 kg of white ash respectively. White ash was macerated for specific period with 4, 6 and 8 times of water and allowed to settle for a period of 12 h, 2 h and 3 h for dissolution of material. YK was prepared from evaporation of the filtrate obtained from the filtration of settled water after dissolution. The details of YK preparation in different batches are given [Table 1].
Total Ash Value, Acid Insoluble Ash and Water soluble Ash was calculated by using method mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia. pH was measured by using pH meter EQ-610 of Equip-Tronic company. pH of YK was recorded by preparing 10%w/v solution.
X Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern of different YK were recorded on Bruker D 8 Discover X-ray diffractometer, Cu Ka (λ=54056 A), scan range (2θ-5.0-120.0, scan speed 30/min) which was made available by the Earth Science Department, IIT, Powai, Mumbai.
Trace element analysis was carried out on AES-ICP by using flame technique with flame temperature in the range of 6000 to 10000 K.
IR spectra in the region (4000-500 cm-1) were recorded on Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrophotometer in KBr pellets.
| Results and Discussion|| |
pH of all batches of YK ranged in between 8.2 to 8.6 which indicates their alkaline nature. YK prepared by using 8 times water showed more alkaline nature than the batches. This may be because the increase in concentration of water may be helpful to dissolve more alkaline material. Ash values of all samples were in the range of 1 – 2.25% which indicates the presence of inorganic material [Table 2].
|Table 2: Physicochemical parameters of Yavakṣāra prepared by different methods|
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X ray diffraction
XRD patterns of different samples of YK are given in [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6].
XRD pattern of all samples showed major peaks at 2θ values around 28.3 and 40.5° along with many small peaks. Intense peaks at 28.3° when compared with library exhibits the presence of Halite crystals of NaCl. Intense peaks at 40.5° when compared with library exhibits presence of Sylvine crystals of KCl. All samples contain NaCl crystals in the form of Halite and KCl crystals in the form of Sylvine. Halite form of NaCl crystal and Sylvine form of KCL crystals are generally obtained after the evaporation process as seen in sea salt. Presence of these crystals is due to evaporation method adopted during the preparation of YK. Batch E contains a greater amount of Halite crystals of NaCl, while Batch A contains more of Sylvine crystals of KCl. The crystalline size of Halite and Sylvine were calculated from XRD patterns (2θ for 100% intensity peaks) following the Scherrer Equation [Table 3] and [Table 4]. It was found that YK prepared by using same quantity of water (Batches A, D and Batches B, E) for dissolution has same crystal size of Halite which is near to the nanoparticles. Batches prepared using 6 times water and kept for 2 h for dissolution have lower particle size (105.1 nm) among the all batches. Particle size of crystals of Sylvine was 108.6 nm in all batches except B and F. Batch F had nanoparticle size (90.5 nm) of Sylvine crystals. No logical explanation was found in literature about large size of crystals of Halite in Batch F.
|Table 3: X-ray diffraction report of halite crystals of NaCl in different samples of Yavakṣāra|
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|Table 4: X-ray diffraction reports of Sylvine Crystals of KCl in different samples of Yavakṣāra|
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AAS-ICP: The details of elemental quantification are given in [Table 5]. It is useful to quantify the trace elements present in the sample. Absence of As, Pb and trace amounts of Hg indicate safety of the samples as they are devoid of heavy metals. There is no contamination of heavy metal in the raw material or during the preparation of drug. Elements Cl, K, Na and Ca were present in large percentages. Mainly large percentage of Cl is due to combination with Na and K to form Crystals of halite and Sylvine as seen in XRD. Presence of other trace elements such Mg, Fe has some clinical significance. Batches A, B, C prepared by using whole plant of Barley with seeds has little more quantity of Mg, Fe due to presence of these elements in seeds. More percentage of Ca is seen batches D, E and F.
|Table 5: Quantification of different elements using inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectroscopy|
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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
FT-IR pattern of different YK samples are given in [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]. FT-IR spectra of different samples of YK showed peaks in the region of 1000 to 1200 cm-1. Batch A and B contain strong peaks in the region of 1103.28 and 1099.43, 1120.64 respectively. Batch C, D, E and F contain mild peaks in the region of 1090 to 1200 cm-1. The peaks in the region of 1000 to 1200 cm-1 indicate the presence of C-N stretch (Alkyl) amine group. Peaks observed in the fingerprint area may indicate the presence of C-N stretch (Alkyl) amine group but confirmation cannot be given as no peaks were observed in group frequency region. Peaks in the fingerprint area in the same frequency are not able to show difference in functional groups of all samples of YK.
| Conclusion|| |
YK is an extracted alkaline material from the whole Barley plant by using open pan burning, maceration with specific concentration of water, sedimentation and evaporation of macerate. YK mainly contains Na, K and Cl in large quantities along with small quantities of Ca, Fe, and Mg. Presence of NaCl in Halite and KCl in Sylvine form in all types of YK confirms the method of evaporation utilized in the preparation of YK. The size of crystal of Halite and Sylvine was near to that of nanoparticles. There is no major difference in levels of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Fe, Mg and Ca in all batches, but there is a need to find clinical significance of minor variation in quantity of such elements. All samples of YK have same functional group indicating presence of C-N stretch (Alkyl) amine group. Four times concentration of water requires more time for preparation but may be the cost effective one as less energy is required for evaporation. Major difference was not found in the batches prepared with and without seeds of barley plant. Use of barley plant without seed may make YK more cost effective but clinical significance needs to be ruled out before reaching any conclusion.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]