|Year : 2010 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 7-12
Preparation and physico-chemical evaluation of Kshiramandura
PG Jadar, MS Jagadeesh
P.G. Department in Rasashahatra, K.L.E.Society's, Shri.B.M.K Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belgaum-590003, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||24-Sep-2011|
P G Jadar
P.G. Department in Rasashahatra, K.L.E.Society's, Shri.B.M.K Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belgaum-590003, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk , boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000''c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO3 and 1.32% CaCO3 .
Keywords: Mandura, Parinamashoola, TriphalaKvatha, Gajaputa, Kshira Mandura, Tridosa
|How to cite this article:|
Jadar P G, Jagadeesh M S. Preparation and physico-chemical evaluation of Kshiramandura. Ancient Sci Life 2010;29:7-12
| Introduction|| |
Mandura (Iron rast) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala etc  . Chemically it is ferrous or ferric oxide in which 2 atoms of iron are combined with 3 atoms of oxygen. It may also contain basic ferrous and ferric carbonates. However, generally it is considered as ferric oxide (Fe 2 0 3 )  . In Peptic ulcer, Acharya Chakradatta has indicated the use of Kshiramandura which is prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73gms of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg  .
Objective of the study
To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification, incineration and after preparation of Kshiramandura (Pharmaceutical form) by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. ,
| Materials and Methods|| |
Selection of the drug
Five market samples of Mandura were collected from different places in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh) and the market sample collected from Maharashtra (Panalghad) matched the qualities described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space.
Process of purification
Mandura was heated in burning charcoal and dipped in sufficient quantity of cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times  .
Process of incineration
Purified Mandura was powdered and triturated with the decoction of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). 1 part coarse powder of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis and 16 parts of water was reduced to 1/8 th after boiling  Then 183 number pellets of the size of a 5 rupee coin were prepared and dried in shade. These were closed and sealed in crucibles of 10 kg capacity. These crucibles were subjected to a special type of furnace (Gaja Puta) for 30 times at the Post Graduate Department of Govt Taranath Ayurveda College. Time estimated for burning in one session of furnace (gajaputa) is more than 48 hrs.
Preparation of Kshiramandura
Incinerated Mandura of about 800gms was taken and put in 81itres ≃ 7200gms of fresh cow's urine. 21itres ≃ 1760gms of fresh cow's milk was added to it in a large steel vessel and cooked on moderate fire. The mixture was mixed with an iron ladle continuously. This continued until the mixture attained a hard consistency. It was taken from the stove and allowed to cool by itself for about two and a half hours and then kept in shade for complete drying. The next day it was subjected to grinding until fine powder was formed. The fine powder of Kshiramandura was collected and stored. [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7] and [Table 8].
|Table 3: Changes in Physical Properties of Mandura after each session of gajaputa|
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|Table 4: Change in the weight of Kshirmandura at each step of preparation|
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|Table 6: Properties of ingredients used in preparation of kshirmandura mentioned in Ayurvedic texts|
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|Table 7: Physical features of Mandura at different stages of preparation.|
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| Discussion|| |
The present study can be classified as follows:
Purification and incineration of Mandura
Preparation of Kshiramandura
1 . Purification and incineration of Mandura
A) Mandura in its crude form was collected on the basis of its physical characters as described in the classical texts of Ayurveda. Details of all the procured samples were noted. Lumps of Mandura are black in color. These lumps were powdered in a large size mortar & pistil to obtain a fine powder. Mandura when analyzed was found to contain Fe2 O3 (70.28%), MgCO3 (3.03%), CaCO3 (3.83%) and acid soluble matter (26.44%).
Fine powdered Mandura was heated in an iron pan till it became red hot and then dipped in cow's urine, as per Ayurvedic text Rasatarangini. Mandura then purified, appeared light blackish in colour and composed of acid insoluble matter less by 14.16% Fe 2 0 3 less by 13.11% and MgCO3 less by 1.99% when compared to the percentages noted earlier. But there was an increase in percentage of CaCO3 (+2.07%)
B) Purified Mandura was subjected to incineration, as per Ayurvedic text Rasatarangini and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace (Gajaputa). Mandura bhasma was subjected to quality assessment by Ayurvedic parameters (Bhasma pareeksha) like ability to float on water (varitaratva), entry into the furrows of fingers (rekhapurnatva), lack of metallic lustre (nischandrikatwa), does not produce smoke when burnt (nirdhoomatwa) etc.
Mandurabhasma appeared dark brown in colour, may be due to oxidation process in mud crucibles and it was reduced to half of its original weight. When subjected to chemical analysis, Mandurabhasma was found containing Acid insoluble matter more than purified Mandura by 4.16 % more FeA by 19.8%, less MgCO3 by 0.41%, and less CaCO3 by 5.17%. Analytical studies of Mandura in different stages were conducted in approved ITA analytical laboratory in Bellary.
2. Preparation of Kshiramandura
Kshiramandura was prepared at Taranath Govt Ayurvedic Medical College P.G. Laboratory Bellary as per the description found in the classical text of Ayurveda by Chakradatta. 800gms of Mandurabhasma was mixed with 8 liters of cow's urine and 2 liters of cow's milk. The mixture was boiled on moderate temperature until a solid extract was obtained. This extract was dried in the sun until the water present evaporated completely. The resultant product was powdered to a fine state.
Following observations were made during the process of preparing Kshiramandura
- The quantity of mixture of Mandurabhasma + Cow's urine + Cow's milk i.e. 9760gms was reduced to 920gms after the process of boiling.
- The weight of Mandurabhasma (i.e.800gms) was increased by 120gms at the end of Kshiramandura process which may be due to the residual substances present in Cow's urine and Cow's milk.
- The dark brown colour of Mandurabhasma changed to light brick red colour after the completion of Kshiramandura process.
- Kshiramandura had a strong odor of Cow's milk.e) Kshiramandura had an astringent and sweet taste.
- When subjected to chemical analysis, Kshiramandura was found to contain less Acid insoluble matter than incinerated Mandura by 02.28%, less FeA by 08.62%, more MgCO3 by 0.03% and CaCO3 by 0.59 %.
| Conclusion|| |
Scope for further studies
Quantitative analysis revealed that Ferric oxide % in crude Mandura was 70.28
- After purification of Mandura in Triphala kwatha, the % of Ferric oxide was reduced to 57.17%
- After incineration through the process of Gaja Puta the percentage of Ferric oxide was 76.97%
- At last when Kshiramandura was prepared and analyzed it was containing 68.35% of Ferric oxide.
Further studies are necessary to understand the toxic and adverse effects of Kshiramandura in both In Vivo and In Vitro models.
| References|| |
|1.||Amarasimha, Amarakosha, Hindi comentry by Vishwanath Jha, Motilal Banarasidas, 1996, Delhi. |
|2.||Dr. Damodar Josbi, Rasashastra, I edition, publication division Ayurveda college, 03Pp, 1997, Trivendrum. |
|3.||Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta, edited by Shree Brahma Shankara Shastri, Chaukhamba Sanskrit series 184 Pp, 1961, Varanasi. |
|4.||Pharmacopoeia of India, III edition, Controller of publication, 1985, Delhi. |
|5.||A.K.Gupta, Pharmaceutics-II, II edition, CBS Publishers and distributors, Delhi. |
|6.||Sadanand Sharma, Rasatarangini, XI edition, Motilal Banarasidas, 516- 517Pp 1994, Delhi. |
|7.||Govindadas, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, XII edition, Sanskrit Sansthan, 453-456Pp, 1996, Varanasi. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]