|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 97-102
Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarna vanga
Rohit Ajith Gokarn1, Dhiraj Singh Rajput2, Pramod Yadav3, Galib4, Biswajyoti Patgiri4, PK Prajapati4
1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, MGACH and RC, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, ARAC, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, MMIA, Khanpur Kalan, Hariyana, India
4 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, I. P. G. T. and R. A, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Web Publication||18-Aug-2014|
Rohit Ajith Gokarn
Asst. Prof. Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, MGACHRC, Salod, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in RasaŚāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Design: Pharmaceutical standardization.
Materials and Methods: Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, Śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī0 and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion: SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
Keywords: Ayurveda, Kupipakva Rasayana, standardization, Swarna Vanga
|How to cite this article:|
Gokarn RA, Rajput DS, Yadav P, Galib, Patgiri B, Prajapati P K. Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarna vanga. Ancient Sci Life 2013;33:97-102
| Introduction|| |
Rasashāstra is a branch of āyurveda explaining pharmaceutical aspects of conversion of metals and minerals into therapeutically potent drugs. The idea behind a combination of organic and metallic substances is to obtain quick therapeutic action using lesser dosage.  Formulation prepared in a glass bottle and by subjecting into a gradually raised temperature in a specific heating device like furnace, is known as Kūpīpakva Rasāyana.  Makaradhvaja,  Rasasindhūra,  Mallasindhūra, Samīrapannaga Rasa, and Svarṇa Vaṅga (SV) are few therapeutically potent and widely used formulations prepared by this method. SV is prepared by the combination of Vaṅga (Tin), Pārada (Mercury), Gandhaka (Sulfur), and Navasādara (Potassium chloride) in equal quantity and processing done by Kūpīpakva method in electrical muffle furnace (EMF). It is named due to the appearance of the final product, which is bright golden yellow in a color similar to that of gold. It is indicated in Prameha (diabetes mellitus), Netra Rogas (eye disorders), Medho roga (obesity), Śukra Kṣaya (oligospermia), etc. 
There is an ever-increasing concern pertaining to safety aspects of metals and mineral in developed countries; hence, there is a crying need to produce "standardized formulations". Drugs from traditional medicine many a time do not qualify meet this requirement because the methods of validation, quality control, and manufacturing process are not in accordance with globally accepted methodologies. Therefore, the need of an hour is to subject metallomineral formulations to rigorous modern scientific testing and develop standards to maintain quality. This will certainly ensure safety to a great extent in pharmacological trials. A number of works regarding pharmaceutical standardization, Toxicity and efficacy studies of SV have been attempted.  Only a few of them are published , Although a number of works have been carried out on standardization of SV at laboratory level, no published data are available for citations.
This study is an attempt to formulate standard manufacturing procedure of SV and to develop its organoleptic and physicochemical standards.
| Materials and methods|| |
Collection of raw materials
Vaṅga (Tin), Pārada (mercury), Gandhaka (Sulfur), Navasādara (Ammonium Chloride), and Saindhava Lavaṇa (Rock salt) were collected from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurveda University Jamnagar. Nimbu (Citrus medica Linn.) was purchased from the local market.
Khalva yantra (Iron mortar and pestle), Kūpī (glass bottle coated with seven layers of mud-smeared cloth, capacity: 750 ml), EMF-inner hearth (length: 15 cm, breadth: 15 cm, depth: 30 cm, maximum temperature capacity: 1000 C) were procured as per requirement.
Vaṅga , , Pārada,  Gandhaka, and Navasādara were purified as per classical guidelines. The preparation of SV  was divided into three stages, namely, preoperative (Pūrvakarma), operative (Pradhānakarma) and postoperative (PaŚcātkarma) stages. SV was subjected to various organoleptic and physicochemical analyses such as texture, color, taste, odor, pH,  ash value,  acid-insoluble ash,  water-soluble ash,  loss on drying,  and percentages of mercury,  sulfur,  and tin. 
Śuddha Vaṅga was melted and mixed with Śuddha Pārada to form an amalgam. This amalgam was levigated in Nimbu Svarasa and later Saindhava Lavana was added. Trituration was carried out thoroughly and the triturate was later washed with lukewarm water. Śuddha Gandhaka was mixed with above amalgam and triturated until the formation of Kajjalī (lusterless fine powder) [Table 1]. Thus, formed Kajjalī was triturated with Navasādara and filled in Kūpī and placed in EMF [Figure 1].
Preparation of SV was carried out in EMF by providing controlled intermittent and gradually increasing temperature that is, 9 h of mild (120-250 C) and 9 h of moderate temperature (250-500 C) [Graph 1]. Accumulated Navasādara and Gandhaka at the neck of the bottle were cleared using a red-hot iron rod. After observation of the confirmative tests like, complete cessation of Gandhaka and Navasādara fumes, the mouth of the Kūpī was corked and the temperature was increased to around 50 C and was maintained for 3 h to facilitate complete formation of the compound. After cooling, the bottle was removed and thus SV was prepared in three batches of 400 g of Kajjalī in each.
After allowing the Kūpī to naturally cool, layers of wrapped cloth were carefully scraped, and the bottle was broken. Product bottom formed at the bottom of Kūpī was carefully collected and weighed.
| Observations and results|| |
Different stages during the process like Gandhaka and Navasādara fuming, melting of Kajjalī, flaming, confirmative test for completion of product formation such as flame disappearance, Śīta Śalākā test, etc., were observed and recorded [Table 2]. Śīta Śalākā test was taken by using an iron spoke measuring 30 cm in length and 0.2 cm in diameter. This test was taken at 480 C temperature after 17 h of heating. Śīta Śalākā was slowly inserted up to 20 cm in the bottle and then slowly withdrawn. Adhesion of yellow particles on the lower part of Śalākā indicated proper formation of SV.
SV collected from the bottom of the Kūpī from all the batches were weighed and calculated for the percentage of absolute and relative yield [Table 3]. SV was subjected to various organoleptic and physicochemical analysis result obtained is depicted in [Table 4] and [Table 5].
| Discussion|| |
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana (a preparation in which product is obtained at the bottom of glass bottle). Present reference used for preparation describes the preparation of SV in 12 h, but slight modification in time duration that is, 18 h duration was preferred in previous studies for proper formation of compound.  Śuddha Vanga was melted in an iron ladle. It was poured into a mortar containing Śuddha Pārada. The mixture was triturated in the presence of Nimbu Svarasa for 15-20 min to form amalgam. The final amalgam was silvery white in color was formed in half an hour. When Saindhava Lavana was added, the mixture turned blackish. It was washed with lukewarm water until it became devoid of blackish discoloration. Afterwards, Śuddha Gandhaka was added to this and triturated for about 18 h until the formation of complete lusterless Kajjalī. The Kajjalī was dull greyish in color. Addition of Navasādara was done just before initiation of Kūpī Pāka process and triturated for 1 h. As Navasādara is hygroscopic in nature,  if added earlier it will moisten the Kajjalī.
While heating at a temperature of 160-360 C, initially white fumes were seen, in the course of time, dense white fumes followed by yellow fumes were observed [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]. White fumes were of Navasādara which could also be adjudged by typical ammoniac smell, whereas yellow fumes is due to sulfur. At temperature 380-410 C profuse, thick white and yellow fumes were seen followed by four choking at the neck, and there was flaming. In this stage, Navasādara becomes molten and starts depositing at the neck of the bottle. Rigorous and intermittent probing by hot iron rod should be carried out during this period to avoid choking of Kūpī by Navasādara [Figure 5].
Completion of the process can be adjudged by Śīta Śalākā test, whereby; its coating appears white, initially, indicating presence of Navasādara followed by black indicating presence of Gandhaka and finally a golden tinge indicating formation of the finished product. However, repeated probing of Śīta Śalākā should be avoided as it alters the overall appearance of the finished product. A study in IMS, BHU revealed the use of Navasādara as an ingredient in the preparation of SV is vital to procure quality product, it acts as a catalyst in the chemical reaction to convert tin into sulfide. Further, use of mercury helps to convert tin in to fine particle, which allows increased surface area for proper reaction.  Kūpī should be broken [Figure 6] and [Figure 7] after cooling naturally as it plays an important role for proper crystallization of the final product.
Corking is not required generally as complete sublimation of Pārada takes place in due course of procedure. Chemically, SV is stannous sulfide having mosaic gold appearance [Figure 8]. Its use in modern chemistry is limited up to coating without any pharmaceutical applications. Yellow sulfide called mosaic gold is obtained by heating tin amalgam with ammonium chloride and sulfur. 
| Conclusion|| |
Swarna Vaṅga is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana and can be prepared by following 9 h of Mrdu and Madhyama agni as described in classics, with yield of 42.9%. Swarna Vaṅga is quantitatively compound of tin and sulfur in 63.3% and 34.1%, respectively.
| Acknowledgment|| |
The author would like to thank Prof. M S Baghel, Director IPGT and RA, Dr. Prashant Bedarkar, Assistant Prof Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana for their valuable guidance and support.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]