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RESEARCH IN PROGRESS/SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 226-230

Seminar training for sensitization of final year undergraduate ayurveda students about knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of research


1 Department of Kayachikitsa, Government Ayurved College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Sharir, Kriya Shree Ayurved College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Tribal Health Regional Center Nagpur, Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission03-May-2019
Date of Decision09-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance26-Oct-2021
Date of Web Publication04-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amit Nakanekar
Government Ayurved College, Nagpur, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/asl.ASL_58_19

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  Abstract 


Background: Knowledge and training in research skills and knowledge of research in early career have been related with continued professional growth and helps to produce good future researchers in society. Central Council of Indian Medicine has recently introduced research methodology as a subject in the final year of the Bachelor of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) curriculum. Hence, we designed a seminar training program for final year BAMS students to assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Aptitude toward Research Methodology and Medical Statistics among final year BAMS students and to evaluate the impact of 2-day seminar of this subject. Methodology: An interventional study has been carried out for 2 days 9th and 10th August 2016. Out of 77 enrolled participants, 64 were assessed by predefined, tested, and validated questionnaires for knowledge attitude and aptitude before and after seminar training. Feedback of students about their outlooks and problems was also taken in focused group discussion. Results: Out of 77 enrolled participants, 11 participants were absent and 66 were present. Out of 66 who attended 2 dropouts, and 64 participants successfully completed. Out of 66 who attended 10 were males and 56 were females. Significant impact of the seminar was found to sensitize in all three domains. Nonparametric correlation was also presented between knowledge attitude and aptitude (ŕ = 0.4757 and ŕ = 0.2614). Many of Ayurveda students also talked about the unavailability of teachers and books for this subject. They also demanded interpathy mixed trainers for such training. Conclusion: Such type of seminar training is beneficial for the students. Compulsory training of 2–3 days for undergraduate students at the university level would definitely be a positive step to develop interest for this newly included subject at the undergraduate level.

Keywords: Ayurveda undergraduates, research methodology, seminar, syllabus


How to cite this article:
Nakanekar A, Kothekar M, Bhowte S, Tawalare K, Mishra S. Seminar training for sensitization of final year undergraduate ayurveda students about knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of research. Ancient Sci Life 2018;37:226-30

How to cite this URL:
Nakanekar A, Kothekar M, Bhowte S, Tawalare K, Mishra S. Seminar training for sensitization of final year undergraduate ayurveda students about knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of research. Ancient Sci Life [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 Jul 3];37:226-30. Available from: https://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/text.asp?2018/37/4/226/334720




  Introduction Top


Research is a systematic approach toward problem solving; it includes efficient collection, analysis, and explanation of data to answer certain queries or resolve the problem. This demands a clear report of problem, clear objectives, correct method, and good interpretation; while research methodology is systematic knowledge about research.[1] Statistics is the field concerned with practice or approach of the gathering of data, along with precise sorting, summarizing, writing/drawing interpretation, testing of hypothesis, making recommendations, etc. Medical statistics is the term derived when tools of data are applied to medicine.[2] The practice of medicine nowadays is driven by evidence. Such evidence come from the randomized set with precise control trials, case reports, meta-analysis, Cochrane reviews, etc., that are generated from the basic set of data.[3] The past three decades witnessed increase in the number of clinical trials, with increase in new drug, plans, and strategically conducting of treatment.[4] It is necessary for a medical graduate not only to be well aware about these newly emerging trends but he/she should be able to choose appropriate drug,/treatment/for the benefit of patient. A training of research early in career has an impact on continued professional educational work and may help undergraduates for their career decisions.[5],[6] Developing a positive attitude towards this new subject of research methodology may improve their competence after acquiring good knowledge. Attitude is a feeling towards a subject while aptitude related to competence.

“Ayurveda” is an ancient healthcare system which is native to India.[7] At present, all over India, above 240 colleges provide a graduate-level degree in Ayurveda.[6] The Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) monitors anything that relates to Ayurveda education and it is the governing body, which executes various educational standard and protocols. In recent years the customary of education has been a reason of concern.[8] CCIM has recently introduced research methodology and medical statistics in the final year Bachelor of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) curriculum.[9],[10] This subject is recently introduced from the 2012 admission batch. The intension behind this inclusion in undergraduate Ayurveda Medical education is to prepare Ayurveda physicians to meet the challenges of practice by fulfilling their roles as a clinician, educators, and clinical researchers.[10],[11] Many of the colleges and students may face some difficulties, problems after inclusion of this new subject. Sensitization of students for this subject is done to find problems faced by students during learning the research and thus allow us to build research – facilitating student-centered curriculum.

Considering this we have arranged 2 days of seminar training for final year BAMS students with the following objectives.

Objectives

  1. To assess the impact of 2 days' seminars to sensitize final year undergraduate Ayurveda students about improvement in knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of research
  2. To identify difficulties and challenges faced by students while studying the subject.


Hypothesis

This study will help to sensitize' final year BAMS students to improve knowledge, aptitude, and attitude of research.


  Methodology Top


Study design

After ethical clearance (EC 1542/8-8-2016), an interventional study was planned with 2 days of seminar training on August 09, 2016, August 10, 2016 at the regional center, Nagpur Maharashtra University of Health Sciences; Nashik. All the participants who participated in the training workshop were enrolled with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Summary of the study methodology is given in [Flow Chart 1].



Inclusion criteria

Final year BAMS students who attended seminar training, and participants who were willing to participate voluntarily were included irrespective of age, gender, caste, etc.

Preparation and validation of the questionnaire

  • A questionnaire was prepared for the study after discussions with various teachers and students affiliated with MUHS Nashik. This questionnaire was mainly based on the research methodology syllabus framed by CCIM for final year BAMS students according to that corrections or errors and questionnaire was improved. After preparation of the final questionnaire, it was given for validation of the questionnaire to 10 people (5 teachers and 5 final year BAMS students.) The data entry was done in an excel sheet. For the purpose of validation, each section's knowledge, attitude, and aptitude questionnaire was considered. Split-half reliability was calculated by using KuderRichardson formula 20 for knowledge and aptitude. It was 0.71, and 0.77, respectively, for each section. Spearman-Brown Formula was used to calculate the reliability of the questionnaire related to attitude (as the scoring was similar to the Likert scale) and it was 0.73. Considering these values acceptable this questionnaire was used for the study.


Pretest questionnaires and posttest questionnaires were used to evaluate the impact of the training program. In pretest, the demographic profile and inclusion criteria of the respondents were questioned along with the knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of the respondents. The posttest questionnaire was for the assessment of knowledge, attitude, and aptitude of the respondents after the seminar.

Written informed consent

Consent was taken before the enrollment of participants in the study. After screening the participant according to inclusion-exclusion criteria it is ensured that the participant has been given enough information, about the study. They were informed that participation is purely voluntary. Informed consent forms were signed and dated by the participant and a copy of the participant information sheet (document) was given to the participant and a copy was retained in the study records.

Assessment

  1. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and aptitude toward research methodology and medical statistics among Final Year BAMS students was done with the help of pretest questionnaire
  2. Assessment of the impact of the training was made with help of pretest and posttest questionnaires (questionnaires are uploaded as supplementary material)
  3. Assessment of the difficulties and challenges faced by the students while studying the subject was done with help of focused group discussion.


Sample size estimation

An interventional study on final year undergraduate Ayurveda students (Batch admitted to BAMS in 2012) from five Ayurveda colleges of Nagpur were included in the study. This training was conducted on the first batch that was facing research methodology as the subject under CCIM. Most of the colleges have covered very minimum syllabus hence the study was planned accordingly. Formal sample size calculation was not done because this was probably the first such study after the inclusion of research methodology to undergraduates. All participants who participated voluntarily were taken for study.

Statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics were applied for collected data and analysis was done with the help of INSTAT version 3 (Developer Graphpad software 2365 Northside Dr.Suite 560 San Diego CA 92108. Free trial version was used downloaded by university). There are several statistical tools available to identify the significance between means and variance. In this study, we have used paired t-test analysis for parametric data and Wilcoxon rank-sum test analysis for nonparametric data. Nonparametric Spearman correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation.


  Observations and Results Top


All the values collected were analyzed with INSTAT version 3. Total 77 students were enrolled for the training out of them 11 did not attend training, 2 participants dropped because they arrived late and could not attend the pretest questionnaire, and the rest 64 completed the study. All the participants were from various Ayurveda Colleges in Nagpur only, [Table 1] shows the impact of training on the knowledge of students. It was statistically significant after applying paired t-test with P < 0.001 and confidence interval ranging from −2.368 to −1.442. While looking at [Table 1] we can clearly sense that the lowest score after training is higher than the lowest score before training. The highest score after training is also higher than the highest score before training.
Table 1: Impact of training on knowledge, attitude and aptitude of students

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Table 1 shows the impact of training on the attitude of students. It was also statistically significant after applying Wilcoxon rank-sum test P < 0.001 and the confidence Interval ranging from −3.767 to −1.947. [Table 1] shows the impact of training on the aptitude of students which was also statistically significant with paired t-test having P < 0.0031 confidence interval (CI) −0.7858–−0.1666. Nonparametric Spearman correlation between knowledge and attitude amongst the students, which was 0.4757 CI 0.3233–0.6039 with P < 0.001. Correlation between knowledge and aptitude amongst the students and this was tested with spearman's nonparametric correlation coefficient. It was 0.2614 CI 0.08545–0.4216 with P < 0.0031.

During FGD we observed that students were very enthusiastic and eager to participate in the discussion. The themes discussed during FGD were about their opinions regarding this new subject, difficulties in learning this subject, probable solutions to overcome them, their perceptions about the necessity of this subject in the undergraduate curriculum, etc., It was also observed that some students do not express their opinions in FGD.


  Discussion Top


Though there were 200–250 final year students in 5 Ayurveda Colleges of Nagpur; only 77 were enrolled and 64 were participated; hence, voluntary participation was only around 20%–25%. More number of females were there for the seminar, but this picture is also similar to the number of females admitting in BAMS courses nowadays; more females are getting admission than males for BAMS courses.

The mean baseline score for knowledge of participants was 6.3. This seminar training was held in final terms of students; before their final university exams hence we expected some basic knowledge in from previous terms and this was reflected in studies. Mean baseline score also indicates that those students who had at least some knowledge about subject might have attended the seminar; and it is also possible that those who were not well aware about the subject were uninterested in attending the seminar. Hence, prior knowledge or sensitization plays important role in developing interest toward acquiring knowledge, developing attitude, and aptitude.

Statistically significant difference between pre and post-test was observed in all domains, that is knowledge, attitude, and aptitude this clearly indicates that such type of seminar is extremely essential to create awareness that their skills in each domain can be improved with proper training. But to achieve the higher level in blooms taxonomy of learning we need some vigorous methods of learning and as this just a 1st year on introduction in the curriculum we hope that such seminars may bring awareness about the importance of learning this subject.

There is improvement in the knowledge, attitude, and aptitude because of the seminar training. After comparing the confidence level of the participant in both pretest and posttest there was the boost in knowledge and attitude when compared to pretest. While comparing posttest results of aptitude with pretest there is not much variation, but the confidence level was gradually increased. There was the correlation between knowledge and attitude, hence we can say that improvement in knowledge of research methodology is also a contributing factor in the development of research attitude among the students.

This study is the first study done on final year BAMS students after the inclusion of research methodology to them. This was the first batch who faced this change in syllabus. 10 questions in each section may not be that much excellent and the inclusion of some more questions can also yield more accurate results, yet they are sufficient enough for primary undergraduate level looking at the depth of syllabus framed by CCIM. Though it is very much difficult to change the attitude in just 2 days of seminar training yet we can say this training has brought small confidence amongst students. Aptitude is a competency to do certain kind of things at certain level and proper training in the proper age may have effect on it; Attitude is certain belief values that brings out certain kind of behavior. Correction of such beliefs in early carrier will have better impact over the growth of research attitude. This study demonstrates the same. It is difficult to achieve both for longer duration; in just 2 days. This seminar training has developed a positive approach toward developing attitude and aptitude and acquiring knowledge. It is also very clear that questions asked in the questionnaire are very basic but considering the fact of first time inclusion of subject and that too very first batch of undergraduate with limited syllabus we expect our findings may be consistent in coming years and further such study with more in-depth questions on the same syllabus can be done if syllabus continues for some more years. It is also accepted that the sample size of this study is little bit small and larger sample studies are necessary.

During focus group discussions students expressed their views very freely. When we discussed about the lower number of participants many students responded that they were unaware about the importance of this subject, many are also reluctant to attend because they have not been informed by teachers of the said subject. This finding is again in similar line with a recent paper by Patwardhan et al. suggesting poor research atmosphere in the Ayurveda research institute.[12] However, we have started a small effort to overcome this scenario targeting young students.

Inclusion of mixed faculties that is both modern medicine and Ayurveda faculties in the training was the most appreciable part of training. Some colleges have teachers to teach this subject while some do not. Some colleges have allotted lecture of this subject but lectures were not conducted. Students also emphasized on the unavailability of proper books/notes for the subject hence the development of comprehensive guide by the university with mixed pathies as a contributor can be another good step. Everyone was happy with the inclusion of such seminar training.

However, there are limitations of this study due to the limitation of seminar training and duration of training we could access only two domains that is recall and understanding from the knowledge and only two domains of attitude that is receiving and responding. A seminar training can impact limited domain as compared to the workshop for research methodology in Ayurved.[13] Workshop can enhance practical activity, mutual interactions, improved one-to-one conversations and it can impact attitude and aptitude in much better way as compared to seminar; however, the number of participants in the workshop can be limited as compared to seminar training.


  Conclusion Top


Inclusion of research methodology as a subject to final year BAMS course was a good initiative by CCIM, but proper training to students is extremely necessary; such short training during the tenure will not only facilitate students learning, but it also help teachers and policymakers to understand their genuine difficulties. Such type of seminar training is beneficial for the students. Compulsory training of 2–3 days for undergraduate students at the university level would definitely be a positive step to develop interest for this newly included subject at the undergraduate level.

Financial support and sponsorship

Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik, has endorsed this activity to facilitate student learning of this subject.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Hukkanen J, Jacob P 3rd, Benowitz NL. Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Pharmacol Rev 2005;57:79-115.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Patwardhan K, Gehlot S, Singh G, Rathore HC. The ayurveda education in India: how well are the graduates exposed to basic clinical skills? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:197391.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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