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   2012| April-June  | Volume 31 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 18, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles
Soham Saha, Shyamasree Ghosh
April-June 2012, 31(4):151-159
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107344  PMID:23661861
Natural products with medicinal value are gradually gaining importance in clinical research due to their well-known property of no side effects as compared to drugs. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as "Guduchi" is known for its immense application in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional ayurvedic literature. Recently the discovery of active components from the plant and their biological function in disease control has led to active interest in the plant across the globe. Our present study in this review encompasses (i) the genetic diversity of the plant and (ii) active components isolated from the plant and their biological role in disease targeting. The future scope of the review remains in exploiting the biochemical and signaling pathways affected by the compounds isolated from Tinospora so as to enable new and effective formulation in disease eradication.
  17,202 2,108 72
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Estimation of total alkaloid in Chitrakadivati by UV-Spectrophotometer
Manjunath Ajanal, Mahadev B Gundkalle, Shradda U Nayak
April-June 2012, 31(4):198-201
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107361  PMID:23661869
Background: Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids. Methodology: Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG). Results and Conclusion: Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients.
  9,394 905 24
Quality control parameters for Tamra (copper) Bhasma
Chandrashekhar Yuvaraj Jagtap, Pradeepkumar Prajapati, Biswajyoti Patgiri, Vinay J Shukla
April-June 2012, 31(4):164-170
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107348  PMID:23661863
Background: Metallic Bhasmas are highly valued and have their own importance in Ayurvedic formulations. To testify the Bhasmas various parameters have been told in Rasashastra classics. Tamra Bhasma (TB) with its different properties is used in the treatment of various diseases is quiet famous among the Ayurvedic physicians (Vaidyas). Objectives: The present study was carried out to set up the quality control parameters for the TB by making the use of classical tests along with advanced analytical tools. Settings and Design: Copper wire taken for the preparation of Bhasma was first analyzed for its copper content and then subjected to Shodhana, Marana and Amrutikarana procedures as per the classical references. Final product complied with all the classical parameters like Rekhapurnatwa, Varitaratwa etc. Materials and Methods: After complying with these tests TB was analyzed by advanced analytical techniques like particle size distribution (PSD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Results: PSD analysis of TB showed volumetric mean diameter of 28.70 μm, 50% of the material was below 18.40 μm size. Particle size less than 2μm were seen in SEM. 56.24 wt % of copper and 23.06 wt % of sulphur was found in ICP-AES. Heavy metals like cadmium, selenium were not detected while others like arsenic, lead and mercury were present in traces. Conclusions: These observations could be specified as the quality control parameters conforming to all the classical tests under the Bhasma Pariksha.
  6,428 591 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Rhazes' concepts and manuscripts on nutrition in treatment and health care
Farzad Nikaein, Arman Zargaran, Alireza Mehdizadeh
April-June 2012, 31(4):160-163
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107357  PMID:23661862
The use of nutrition in medical practice has a long history dating back to 6000 years. The great Persian chemist, physician, and philosopher, Rhazes (865-925 AD), wrote over 200 books in different branches of science. Some of his work drew attention to the notion that nutrition is an important part of treating diseases and health care procedures. Rhazes formulated highly developed concepts of nutrition and wrote several special books about food and diet such as manfe' al aghzie va mazareha (Benefits of Food and its Harmfulness), teb al moluki (Medicine for Kings), and Ata'me al marza (Food for Patients). His writing included detailed guidance about eating fruit ma iaghdam men al favakeh va al aghzieh va ma yoakhar (Fruit Before or After Meal), and other food types keifiat al eghteza (Temperament and Quality of Foods) and al aghziat al mokhtasareh (Brief Facts about Food). Considering the time that these books were written, they have had a great influence on approaches to nutrition in the history of medicine, so Rhazes can be considered as a pioneer in the scientific field of nutrition.
  5,128 290 8
EDITORIAL
Clinical diagnosis in Ayurveda: Challenges and solutions
P Ram Manohar
April-June 2012, 31(4):149-150
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107342  PMID:23661860
  4,571 653 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on experimental animal model for inflammation
Uma A Bhosale, Radha Yegnanarayan, Prachi Pophale, Rahul Somani
April-June 2012, 31(4):202-206
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107362  PMID:23661870
Background: Achyranthes aspera is known as Chirchita (Hindi), Apamarga (Sanskrit), Aghedi (Gujarati), Apang (Bengali), Nayurivi (Tamil), Kalalat (Malyalam) and Agadha (Marathi) in our country. It possesses valuable medicinal properties and used in treatment of cough, bronchitis and rheumatism, malarial fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension and diabetes in Indian folklore. Present study was designed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of an aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera (AEAA). Materials and Methods: AEAA leaves and whole plant (i.e. Aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera leaves (AEAAL)/Aqueous extracts of A. aspera whole plant (AEAAW) were studied in albino mice using carrageenan induced left hind paw edema. Both extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity of the extracts was also studied using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD guidelines 423. Results: Acute toxicity study confirmed toxic dose of AEAA to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were the major constituents found in extracts. AEAA reduced the edema induced by carrageenan by 35.71-54.76% on intraperitoneally administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg as compared to the untreated control group. Diclofenac sodium at 10 mg/kg inhibited the edema volume by 42.85%. The results indicated that the AEAA 800 mg/kg body weight shows more significant ( P < 0.01, P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control respectively. Conclusion: Both AEAA exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity attributed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids phytoconstituents.
  4,496 427 10
Phytochemical investigation and pharmacognostic standardization of Cissampelos pareira root
Jhuma Samanta, S Bhattacharya, Rana Rayat
April-June 2012, 31(4):181-184
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107352  PMID:23661865
Background: In ethno-medicinal practices, the roots of Cissampelos pareira(Patha) are used in the treatment of various ailments related to urinary problems and skin infections, and in tumorinhibitor activity, antibacterial, antimalarial, diuretic activity,anticonvulsant activity etc., The main problem encountered in standardization of Ayurvedic drugs is proper identification of the source plant. Materials and Methods: The macroscopic features of each anatomical component have been observed by a high-resolution camera.The moisture content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water-alcohol and ether extractive values of the powdered sampleswere determined by the method as per WHO guidelines. The phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira root was performed by the standard chemical ltests and by TLC on silica gel G using solvent systems proposed by Harborne. Result: The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, radial medullary rays, and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals had also been found. Phytochemical screening revealed that the Cissampelos pareira root extract contains terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. Alkaloids and essential oil were detected in TLC of the Cissampelos pareira root extract developed using blends of methanol:concentrated ammonia (200:3) and n-butanol:acetone:water (3:1:1) and benzene:ethyl acetate:formic acid(9:7:4) as solvent systems for alkaloid whereas chloroform(100%), benzene (100%) ,chloroform:benzene(1:1),and ether:benzene(1:1) as solvent systems for essential oil. Conclusion: These findings will be useful toward establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity,quality, and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.
  3,705 405 2
The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice
Shadi Sarahroodi, Somayyeh Esmaeili, Peyman Mikaili, Zahra Hemmati, Yousof Saberi
April-June 2012, 31(4):185-189
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107354  PMID:23661866
The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n0 = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock.The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly ( P < 0.05) increased memory retention. The best response was achieved with 400 mg/Kg of the extract. Also, results showed that sweet basil extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retrieval and the best result was achieved with 400 mg/Kg too.It can be concluded that memory enhancing effects of green Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.
  3,774 243 14
Abhraka Bhasma treatment ameliorates proliferation of germinal epithelium after heat exposure in rats
Babita S Bhatia, Purushottam G Kale, Jayashree V Daoo, Pranali P Panchal
April-June 2012, 31(4):171-180
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107350  PMID:23661864
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the test drug. On sacrificing the animals after 30 days, it was observed that control animals (G1) had normal spermatogenesis and drug-induced animals (G2) showed hyperactive tubules. Testicular hyperthermia occurred in few (G3) animals, who were subjected to 43°C for 1 h daily for four consecutive weeks, resulting in degeneration of tubules with inspissated spermatozoa (25%) leading to atrophy of the organ. 3% tubules showed disintegration, 23% were in the recovery stage while 71% tubules exhibited enhanced proliferation of germinal epithelium leading to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The present study reveals that the test drug can correct heat-induced male infertility and provides us with the possibility of treatment of human heat-induced oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Hence, this ayurvedic maharasa (primary mineral) can be a promising formulation as an anti-impotency fecundity drug.
  3,380 261 1
Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn
R Kannan, K Prasant, UV Babu
April-June 2012, 31(4):190-193
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107347  PMID:23661867
Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.
  3,213 254 1
Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae]
Rabinarayan Acharya, Riddhish H Padiya, Eisha D Patel, Harisha C Rudrapa, Vinaya J Shukla, Malati G Chauhan
April-June 2012, 31(4):194-197
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107359  PMID:23661868
Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as "Bada Rasna" by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.
  3,105 239 1
INSTITUTE DIARY
Traditional Indian medicine: Ayurveda, natural medicine and integrative medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen Germany
Syal Kumar, Gustav J Dobos, Thomas Rampp
April-June 2012, 31(4):209-211
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107365  PMID:23661873
  2,730 191 -
READERS VIEWPOINT / LETTERS
Pomegranate juice on dental plaque microorganisms
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2012, 31(4):208-208
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107364  PMID:23661872
  2,090 214 -
Randomised controlled trials and alternative therapy
Sreedhar K Krishna, Ankeet S Jethwa
April-June 2012, 31(4):207-207
DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107363  PMID:23661871
  2,054 155 -
BOOK REVIEW
Manual of rheumatology
Sujithra Ram Manohar
April-June 2012, 31(4):212-213
  1,912 283 -
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